Archive for the ‘Systems’ Category
Friday, November 11th, 2011
- Jellyfish – How it works
Last week scientists announced that they have solved one of the greatest mysteries of marine life, however, agreed to describe the process, but were wrong to interpret it. This is the question of how it can perpetuate the population of jellyfish, because the logic is that they should not exist anymore.
Tides grow and invade the shores and beaches during a half a day and reduce leaving the water back to sea. Thus, what appears to live on the coast of the continent that is floating near the surface, as plankton is always dragged by the waves out to sea, every 12 hours. But the jellyfish comes before the coast as plankton, floating on the waves as plankton and if it were dragged out to sea every 12 hours, the first trawler had already disappeared from the planet your species as it would not survive due to lack of food, etc.. In fact, contrary to all rational logic, it emerged on the planet 600 million years, long before dinosaurs and insects, and continues to survive very well; maintaining a resident population of each individual whose longevity is much longer than the 12 hours. How can this be?! This question has done for centuries, scholars and scientists scratching their heads in despair: how is it happenning?! This is not logic! We see them being taken by the waves out to sea, we know the distance from the coast they have to die. Where fall the jellyfish we see each new day on the shores of the continents? From the sky?
In the excellent section of Sciences that the New York Times published on Tuesday, came last week the article “So Much More Than Plasma to Jellyfish and Poison”, on June 7, 2011. The research group led by Dr. David J. Albert Roscoe Bay Marine Biological Laboratory in Vancouver, British Columbia, has spent decades observing and chasing each individually jellyfish near the sea and announces he discovered the solution to the mystery.
According to them, when the tide drops and the water starts to return to sea, in fact leads the jellyfish too. But before the waves reaches the far sea there is a region called “gravel bar.” Then suddenly the jellyfish bouncing off the waves and dive deep, reaching the deepest region where the waters do not move. There are hibernating and waiting. When twelve hours after the waves start to return because of the rising tide, they rise to the surface, board and ride the waves return to the banks where have their food.
I think have very human champion surfer who should studying the jellyfish to learn some good tricks. Well actually they are the true champions of the waves.
But how and why there is such a phenomenon in Nature?! The same scientists study the jellyfish already know that they have no brain, even a nervous system structured. This means that she cannot understand and capture the tidal waves of water. So how it enters and leaves the wave at the right time and exact place?! How does she know – being in the midst of the waves – which have standing water below?! How can it discern that there is a gravel bar? And how could she know that beyond the gravel bar, she would die, or that after the bar is the high seas?!
Scientists are making a titanic effort, ferreting out the ribs and receivers / transmitters of jellyfish, and with a prior intention: to prove – contrary to what has been believed in scientific circles – that it possesses a primitive nervous structure but much more evolved than you think, and this structure would be the reason for such wisdom.
They are going the wrong way because they don’t know this real world where there is a Matrix / DNA. Never even imagined something like that. For the Matrix / DNA model has the solution to the mystery without resorting to a brain and wisdom in jellyfish that does not exist.
And which is the explanation from the Matrix / DNA about that “magic” of jellyfish? In short, the DNA of jellyfish, which is a semi-live being so primitive that connects it to the events in the origin of life on this planet and his astronomical system, still behaving the same way if the DNA / Matrix astronomical , which after all, is his father and mother, their creators.
It was this planet Earth, along with other stars that make up the system to which it belongs, which has the core system this fabulous star and bountiful life that is the Sun, which themselves have created life on Earth’s surface. And they created simply obeying the laws and mechanisms of universal evolution, in which simple systems mutate and reproduce in some systems with more degree of complexity. It may be that behind our stellar system, beyond the galaxies before the Universe, there is some kind of an Supreme Intelligence, but if it exists, it is entitled to be called the Supreme, she would not have come here and walk around from planet to planet to create life, for even our engineers can produce pre-programmed software. For starters, look at a jellyfish and observe the shape of the Milky Way. The rounded nucleus, the arms that extend outward, the jellyfish looks like a copy of the Milky Way. The similarity in form is no mere coincidence; my grandmother knew that “son of fish, little fish look like.”
But the explanation of the Matrix / DNA is fantastic. It made the hairs on my arms stood on end with excitement, made my eyes tear of admiration, as it is hidden in this extraordinary engineering Nature!
To understand it, we need to see the software model DNA / Matrix, or how was the evolutionary shape of the Matrix when it built the galaxies, i.e., the material hardware, concrete body, she would “embody”.
The Matrix / DNA in the Form-Software Sources in the Galaxy
The Evolution of the Stars Same as Evolution of Cellular Organelles: As an Electrical System light bulbs, so the Universal Matrix makes to manifest the Materials Structures.
(Click on drawing to see better, and sorry for the bad quality of the design because it was done with pencil and paper wrapping while kneeling on the verge of stirring up the mud bogs in this research, with the skin burned off due to hundreds of those little vampires, called “piuns” and “carapanãs” sucking my blood, and under the scorching sun of the Amazon jungle)
We know that matter or energy can manifest as a particle or wave. The jellyfish represents the particle of matter in space, the body of the star that is being transformed into six forms or systemic functions, presented in the figure above. Tidal waves are the imitation of terrestrial waves of time, which in the figure are represented by arrows of the systemic circuit. The jellyfish and its connection with tidal waves repeats the process of universal life cycle where the matter sometimes appears as a particle in the space, sometimes presents itself as a wave of time.
The jellyfish do not know anything, misses nothing, nor could it. It works automatically in the hands of a clock, which jump in number to number and had no sense that they are moving, let alone knowing that there are numbers or repetitive periodic moments of time. The context “waves + jellyfish” function within an astronomical system, like clockwork, because both are products of a mechanical structure, the Newtonian clock, the Newtonian mechanics. Like a clock moves both hands, so the galaxy moves the tide and the particles in it, like the jellyfish. It seems incredible that something as huge as the galaxy to act on something as small as a jellyfish, but becomes perfectly understandable when understanding that galaxies and jellyfish are just different forms of a single universal system under development, where size does not say anything. There is a fractal model, which is the figure displayed on this website here and called Matrix / DNA, which is the essence of this system, so the jellyfish is just a microscopic fractal of a macroscopic fractal. The structure, the skeleton, the software program, is one, although that change their protuberances, accessories, and seen from a distance by an observer unaware, the outer forms become so differentiated that does not seem to get along with each other.
Note that the arrows and the body in the circuit moves and when they arrive at Function 4 they fork. A stream of arrows-wave continues its circular path to close the circle, while another flow goes “down” towards F1. The diary cycle tidal waves / jellyfish repeats this process and reaches a point where the jellyfish moves down and separates the circular wave, looking “down” vertically into deeper waters where they are stationary. All movements displayed by the jellyfish, such as diving, emerging back to the surface, the park in deep water, is nothing more than mere repetition of the flow represented by an arrow going from F4 returning to F1. And the jellyfish and the shape of the comet at F5, reappears in the circular waves and merges with them again in F1, when they reach the bottom of the lower end.
But note well. Would be correct to say, as scientists say, jellyfish that descends and then rises? This depends on the point of reference, the fixed point on which we say that something is up or down. Let us take as a reference point the core of the planetary system, our Sun. During half of the day the planet turns on itself has a face to the sun. An observer watching from the sun would say that the surface of this face is the highest point of planet. In the other half of the day, this face shifts to the hidden part of the planet, then the observer remains fixed on the sun would say the same face now is the lowest point on earth. In relation to the sun, well, we Americans are over and the Japanese on the other side, are beneath, or sometimes we are below, and the Japanese are up there.
So if we could dig a hole uninterrupted from the ground in America and we come up with for-head, going over a manhole on a street in Tokyo, would be right to say that we descend and then climb? Or that we plunged into the ground and then emerge from the earth …?
Then in the Sun, when the jellyfish out of the waves and dives, it really is diving, or going down, for half the day. But even from the sun, while the other half of the day she goes to the surface, it actually goes down … She is simply being led by the arrows function 5.
Now sleep with a noise like this if you can… It’s each thing that the Matrix/DNA leads us to discover that our poor little head will not last long …
The jellyfish does not dive and then emerges by itself, it simply is driven down forever, repeating the movement of their ancestral DNA, the entire galaxy! Because this process is recorded in their DNA, he was trained to do so for 10 billion years. It was only later, in most living things evolved, that this process ceased to be expressed and went to be part of what was wrongly called “junk” DNA.
I feel that here and now I have no time and computing resources to insert a graphic design I did in the paper today, reflecting about this issue. Due to the movement of horizontal rotation of the Earth around the Sun, in fact, the tide will not return. It only goes in one direction, precisely imitating the direction circular of flow on the Matrix / DNA. It turns out that if we position ourselves in the sun, and watch as the Earth, a continent that during any one half of the day is moving away to the left, continue going left when he is on the other hand, face hidden.
Researchers actually have reason to admire the complexity and behaviors in a jellyfish. Dr Albert says:
“Looking at all these behaviors, you have to wonder what it would take to organize them and run them. ” These are not simple reflexes are organized behavior. “Albert concluded that she must have some kind of brain. “A brain controls behavior. ”
Here is the reason for my despair at not appear anyone to help me to disclose and make known the worldview of the Matrix / DNA. A large army of students and researchers like Dr. Albert urgent need to know the formulas of the theory. If he knew he would not say it and would be directing their research and the other way more correct. Not always when there exists an organized behavior need has a brain controlling. All objects in the world are influenced by the hierarchy of natural systems. Systems distant and invisible to our eyes may be influencing a stone or a plant in front of us, not in person realizing it. For example, the Arab who becomes a suicide bomber is behaving differently than normal for a human being, which seeks to survive and not kill himself. It occurs that above the society and the invisible man is a system called “religion” which influences and alters the normal behavior of man. The system far distant, invisible that influences the behavior of jellyfish, exists since 10 billion years ago and is the size of a galaxy, but he is encrypted in the DNA of jellyfish and he built the biosphere, the environment in which it exists . The Matrix is within us and around us, everywhere. It is therefore extremely important that we know it and know of their existence.
But she does all this because the formula of Nature software to organize the matter in systems, while driving that matter, always repeats this same engine. It is through our learning of these mechanisms, building on the work of giants, patient and dedicated observation for years by scientists as the group of Dr. Albert, who will mind raising this extraordinary natural engineering information and knowledge that we have new insights to develop new technologies that will help us survive and improve our living conditions. Congratulations to the group of Dr. Albert and the Theory of Matrix / DNA.
1) Like everyone else, each topic as this written here is a new area of research based on the worldview of the Matrix / DNA. So each topic is always open to be anything new added, any new fact related that may to be discovered.
2) JELLYFISH WITH PROTEIN CAPABLE OF EMITTING LIGHT LASER
Scientists have induced a cell to produce laser light, according to an article published in the journal Nature Photonics. Laser light differs from normal because it has a narrower spectrum of colors, like light waves that oscillate together in sync. The team used a green fluorescent protein found in a species of jellyfish - Green Fluorescent Protein, or GFP, its acronym in English. Subject of many studies, the molecule GFP revolutionized biology by acting as a “lantern” that can illuminate living systems.
Comment Matrix / DNA:
There is no doubt: the jellyfish is very important for us to test – whether or not the formula of the Matrix / DNA is real and to better understand it. This is because the jellyfish is – evolutivelly – very close to our ancient astronomical, the form of a closed system. See how things go knocking. I’ve already said many times here that the existence of proteins in our world is the explanation that they are the so-biological material that represents the circular arrows in the systemic circuit of Matrix’s software. In other words, a protein is the biological material, the tool that serves for acting and doing the process of life cycle, and the set of all proteins is the sum of all of the information flow of system information. It is the circuit of our ancestor that “lights up” the stars. When our intelligence intuitively copied the system Matrix in the form of household electrical circuit is the circuit that lights the lamps. Therefore, since the proteins represent the total circuit, had to be a protein that would be the biological molecule capable of producing light, and had to be a biological system that was one of the copies or more faithful reproduction of the astronomical system in the form, i.e. the jellyfish. No wonder the intuition of the scientists induced to think of a “torch” lit inside a living being.
On the other hand, there is another topic dedicated to light. This is because we are coming to the conclusion that the principle of everything in this Universe is housed in natural light when we are finding that the seven different ways of frequencies and periods of the light wave contains the shape of the life cycle. It seems that light is the tentacle, the hand of God in this world, the essence that contains the first form of the software of the Matrix / DNA. And this news about the GFP protein must be brought to the research topic of light also.
Saturday, January 15th, 2011
Sorry. Since I am not having enough time for translating from Portuguese, for seeing the articles one need to chlick the Brazillian flag above. Also, I understand that the site is not explaining almost nothing about the theory. It is because the site is under construction, I have a lot of writed material but had no time and the special computers skills for doing that. I hope will do it soon. Thanks…
Saturday, July 10th, 2010
See full article at: http://cienciadiaria.com.br
And here’s the version of the Matrix
(translation needs correction)
A study conducted by scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, shows that small molecules could have acted as a “molecular midwife” to help in building blocks of long chains of genetic material, as well as aiding in the selection of base pairs of double DNA helix. For researchers, there is evidence that, before there were enzymes of protein for the production of both small molecules present in the prebiotic Earth (before the emergence of life on the planet) would have helped in the formation of these polymers to promote their self-assembly.
During the experiments, the scientists observed that the molecule may help ethidium oligonucleotides (short fragments of a single strand of DNA or RNA) in the formation of polymers. One of the biggest challenges for obtaining a polymer is that as he grows, their tips begin to react with each other instead of forming long chains – a problem that is known as cyclization. But by using a molecule that binds between adjacent base pairs of DNA (known as Interleaved), it is possible to form short pieces of DNA and RNA to facilitate the creation of larger molecules. Now, researchers are seeking the true identity of this molecule “mother of all”, for the formation of the first genetic polymer from Earth. The molecule selfless that took the first step in triggering the complex and explosive emergence of life.
First version of the Matrix
This theme reveals how difficult was the struggle of nature to restore the descendants of LUCA here on Earth to evolution, to correct them of the addiction that took his heavenly ancestors to commit the original sin. A battle at the level of molecules where the agents of nature had to invade closed walls of fortresses where the descendants ended addicts and bring them out where the officers were waiting for us with outstretched hands to form a new and wider society.
Let’s analyze the phenomenon coldly, without impregnating it with our mystic. If you really understand what the text says, we are observing the past, before the origins of life, and we see a group of atoms connected to form a tape and we know that this molecule is the initial part of a great tape that would take later and called RNA or DNA. But even small changes the tape target, their tips are linked and form a ring. Goodbye RNA, was not this time yet. But we found another smaller group – that would inevitably bend their tips and close – and something strange happens: it appears around a small group of atoms known as ethyl molecule that grabs one end of the small molecule and preventing it from bending close, and brings other atoms connecting them at that point. It looks like the tip after some time changes its normal behavior, because now it does not attract more for the other end, and thus remains atoms added to it. Thus one day came to get a complete RNA molecule and hence the life appeared. In turn, the molecule of ethyl with his mission accomplished, quietly disappeared from the scene, does not expect reporters, television, the reward from the government, the fame of heroin, and will seek another molecule anonymous baby who help grow…
Gee … but we’re talking about atoms, a gang or random group of atoms! Atoms are sets of particles, they have no purpose, they do not move a finger unless they are lacking in energy and seek food in the form of an electron in the surface layers of other atoms. If you have a group of them acting differently, with abnormal behavior, and even more purposeful to help, the babysitting babies, midwives, it is clear they do not know what they do or why they do it. There must be some forces within or outside of them, with more power than the natural force of them, directing them. Either that or we undressed the coat of a scientist, sent Science go plant potatoes because the world is not logical.
I think only the existence of systems may explain these forces. It’s the only thing we know and proven that we know can act in the matter without being visible. An Arab who should be working and looking girlfriend suddenly fills with bomb and kills himself. An unreasonable behavior that came out of him: an invisible system known as Islam (or at least an ideological system of terrorists). Systems hierarchically higher or greater in complexity act on smaller systems outside or on their sub-systems or even the essence of a system that gives it its identity, which is the information overload of information beyond the sum of all its parts acts on its own shares. This excess of information that is not in any of the parts, resulting from the experiences of interactions between the parts is the mind’s invisible system. Just as in man there is an entity that is abstract, untouchable, called mind, which is substantially different from the body that produces it, is different from all parts of the body, but has the power to direct the body to where she decides. Atoms alone are not heroes or altruistic. Put billions of atoms connected and they form a stone, which does not move a finger, because the loose stones are pieces of a disconnected system.
But then, what’s and where’s the system that exists in that area at that soup of mud, leading a group of atoms to abnormal behavior? Nobody goes to see because there is not any system; everyone swears that there is no system there.
As a result, we are tempted to see small groups of atoms as if they were thinking entities with piracy! It is fashionable to say that genes have roles, which have knowledge of the future, because these other piles of atoms possess the ultimate purpose of self-perpetuation! Researches stopped themselves, totally to seek external forces to the atoms, gave personality to them. Lost his mind! We were laughing by the religious because they believe they know where the forces comes from forces: God.
There is a complete system, very big, huge even, in a shapeless mass of very tiny cells. I refer to the genetic code within a morula or blastulae in the middle of amniotic soup from which will develop a human being. The human being is the system that is driving the behavior of atoms within that soup, but there are no human beings inside the small egg. He was transfigured, decoded, and placed as a molecule composed of atoms within the amorphous mass. So if we have a proven solution here on Earth, why we should issue identity cards for molecules or demote God from the heights to come here and be playing with mud? Why not seek a larger system out of the soup?!
It was the conclusion I arrived at Amazon. When crouched turning mud of the swamp, thinking the system, I lit this little light, I thought about it, let the mud and looked up, searching the surrounding area, risking an investigator to look into the heavens … I never went back to the mud to find the answers to the origins of life. Surely they were not there, like my father and mother were not in person inside the tiny egg from my early days.
So … if I fight for this idea, now I at least must to suggest who’s the unknown system and where the system are.
When the scientific text says “A major challenge to obtain a polymer is that as he grows, their tips begin to react with each other instead of forming long chains – a problem that is known to cyclisation.” We can understand it in the language of the Matrix. Prior to remember that “polymer” atoms are connected together to form a tape, as if it were a worm and they came together because the sun’s energy and substance of the earth’s core inoculate the atoms of light particles called photons, which are units of information from the LUCA’s Matrix/DNA. These photons are trying to create a body to incarnate itself as software, as we try to do a more advanced computer hardware to operate the latest software more developed than before. The photons act as subversive agents of a foreign regime on the particles of atoms leading them to connect in new ways. But photons inherited from LUCA are the supreme selfishness and so when they have aligned atoms sufficient to unite the two ends of the worm to they attempt transform it into a ring.
Benzene, a simple compound cyclic.
The most primitive ring chemical benzene was discovered by Kekulée while traveling in a carriage and started to sleep but as the bumps of the carriage made her body dancing he dreamed of dancing atoms and forming wheels and cirandas. Suddenly he shouted to the coachman to stop, left the train, raised his arms to the heavens and shouted to the world: “I found the Benzene.” And gave an affectionate slap on the rump of the horse by saying “thanks buddy, to your trot! When we arrive you will have the best alfalfa ad and a week of vacation!”
Forming the ring LUCA’s genes closed the system, have retreated inside of him as the turtle is retreating into the shell inside and prepare to live eternally thermodynamic their paradise. But Nature does not want that, she has a mission far greater reach than just be balls or hard balls around in the sky, so she has to open those tips to add more atoms that are needed to build more complex systems and let them open to evolve. When she breaks up a ring it is called by chemists of “cyclization” and see an example:
Ring opening metathesis Polymerisation
See details on Wikipedia. You see as a closed ring, when involved in a substance catalyst in a laboratory, it becomes an open line as a worm? Now for an opposite example, when a chain of atoms in the form of line – or open system – makes its points and sticking to react to form a ring, closed system:
In the scientists’ experiment the agent of Nature to correct the heirs of LUCA was a molecule of ethidium, which would be in place above the base-ROH. I think this example is not quite appropriate, but this haste cannot find another (if you have time you have a mission to help me with the opportunity to learn by yourself (a)). For as the text says: “… small molecules could have acted as a” molecular midwife “to help in building blocks of long chains of genetic material” – the action of ethidium molecule is not to attack and break rings after they were closed but she acts before the two ends of the chain of atoms come together, inserting these new tips atoms selected to fulfill a plan consisting of a larger and more complex. Therefore, the molecule of ethidium functions more as missionaries and psychologists dealing with young people seeking to become addicted trying to convince them to follow another path. Or as the message of the Matrix tries to transmit a healthier naturalist message to the young that lost the religious faith of parents and is about to be captured in the network transmitted by the theories of materialistic nihilism.
It said: “Now, researchers are seeking the true identity of this molecule” mother of all “, for the formation of the first genetic polymer from Earth. The molecule selfless that took the first step in triggering the complex and explosive emergence of life.” Well, that name “molecule of life”, or “mother of all” are advertising resources to enhance the materialist theory of abiogenesis. Believe that there would be a molecule or midwife creator of life? But will they have forgotten what lies behind the true meaning of the word “Life”? It is the most complex thing existing in these regions of the universe, an extraordinary engineering that we can never imitate, then who created this fantastic thing would have been a handful of atoms more stupid than a rock?! Now common! Anyway, I prefer the reasoning of Matrix Theory which suggests that many different molecules as agents for polymerization, these molecules are out pieces of the circuit LUCA ion affinity looking for other molecules that contain snippets of the past with neighbors, so as a Chinese arrived in New York will not seek to live in the Turkish quarter but the neighborhood that contains his countrymen from China.
Another issue related to this and what is fashionable eco is the fact that the industrial laboratory techniques discover how close lines or rings rather as open rings in rows, and the results of these experiments are materials such as nylon, polyethylene, etc.. A technique known as “Ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cycloalkenes” has important petrochemicals. Hence we can understand why some of these products are toxic pollutants or non-degradable, since we are creating new chemical compounds that can be deadly to those formed naturally, for both closed rings and opened molecules that would be used by evolution.
See here some useful definitions:
In chemistry, a cyclic compound is a compound in which a number of carbon atoms are connected into a loop or ring.  Benzene is a well known example. The term “polycyclic” is used when more than one ring form a molecule such as in naphthalene, and the term macrocycle is used for a ring containing more than a dozen atoms.
An organic chemical reaction that forms a cycle, i.e., produces a cyclic molecule from a non-cyclic compound is called cyclization reaction. A generic example to understand this type of reaction is the cyclization of hexane cyclohexane. An example of the cyclization reaction produces the Dieckmann condensation.
Tuesday, September 22nd, 2009
I don’t know answers to the phenomenas pointed out by Intelligent Designer as arguments for Irreducible Complexity (if somebody knows, please, tell me). Reading the Michael Behe paper below we really are compelled to see a cell and believe in designer.
But, let’s go to think about an analogy:
A scientist friend of mine, put a human embryo freezed in a rocket and sent it to space. In Orion, Nebula, the life form existhing there which is iron-based and not carbon-based, found the embryo and after studying it they said: “This thing was designed!”
They were right. The embryo was designed by the mother body that was outside the womb, sorrounding the womb and was inside the embryo also, as the genetic code. The mother did not used any kind of intelligence for designing the embryo: Nature did everything.
Now we are seeing the complexity of a cell – could be the first living being, the first cell system – and we are compelled to say: it was designed. And we are right. The first cell was like the embryo sent to space and falls over Earth surface. The cell was designed by its parents, called LUCA, an hermafrodit that lives in the space, surrounding the planet and Luca is inside the cell also as it genetic code.
So, the evolutionists does not need have fear that the Darwin’s Theory is threat, everything continues equal and the deists does not need have fear that evolution could threat their faith: the Matrix/DNA is only showing that it is possible that everything inside the Universe could be designed, since that the own Universe is a genetic production: the parents of the Universe are outside the womb and inside also, throughout the genetic code. You can call then as God, and thinking about then as God, the Matrix/DNA has no knowledge about this dimension.
Abiut the phenomenas pointed out as irreducible complexity, the Matrix/DNA theory has found that every phenomena cited above are reducible to the body of LUCA. Everything were there, joined, performing a proto/system. For instance, the cillia came from the comeds tail, which movies compelled by the magnetic fields in the spiral. It was used the motor of LUCA, the cillias inside LUCA, etc.
Since I have no time just now, thisn article will be open and later I will come back explaining everything. By now it is necessary to copy and register here the excellent artivle of Mr. Behe.
Artigo editado em:
Access Research Network
Michael Behe Files
In The Origin of Species Darwin stated 6:
If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.
A system which meets Darwin’s criterion is one which exhibits irreducible complexity. By irreducible complexity I mean a single system which is composed of several interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, and where the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced gradually by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, since any precursor to an irreducibly complex system is by definition nonfunctional. Since natural selection requires a function to select, an irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would have to arise as an integrated unit for natural selection to have anything to act on. It is almost universally conceded that such a sudden event would be irreconcilable with the gradualism Darwin envisioned. At this point, however, ‘irreducibly complex’ is just a term, whose power resides mostly in its definition. We must now ask if any real thing is in fact irreducibly complex, and, if so, then are any irreducibly complex things also biological systems.
Consider the humble mousetrap (Figure 1). The mousetraps that my family uses in our home to deal with unwelcome rodents consist of a number of parts. There are: (1) a flat wooden platform to act as a base; (2) a metal hammer, which does the actual job of crushing the little mouse; (3) a wire spring with extended ends to press against the platform and the hammer when the trap is charged; (4) a sensitive catch which releases when slight pressure is applied; and (5) a metal bar which holds the hammer back when the trap is charged and connects to the catch. There are also assorted staples and screws to hold the system together.
Figure 1. A household mousetrap. The working parts of the trap are labeled. If any of the parts are missing the trap does not function.
If any one of the components of the mousetrap (the base, hammer, spring, catch, or holding bar) is removed, then the trap does not function. In other words, the simple little mousetrap has no ability to trap a mouse until several separate parts are all assembled.
Because the mousetrap is necessarily composed of several parts, it is irreducibly complex. Thus, irreducibly complex systems exist.
Now, are any biochemical systems irreducibly complex? Yes, it turns out that many are.
Earlier we discussed proteins. In many biological structures proteins are simply components of larger molecular machines. Like the picture tube, wires, metal bolts and screws that comprise a television set, many proteins are part of structures that only function when virtually all of the components have been assembled. A good example of this is a cilium. 7
Figure 2a. Animation of a Cilium
Cilia are hairlike organelles on the surfaces of many animal and lower plant cells that serve to move fluid over the cell’s surface or to “row” single cells through a fluid. In humans, for example, epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract each have about 200 cilia that beat in synchrony to sweep mucus towards the throat for elimination. A cilium consists of a membrane-coated bundle of fibers called an axoneme. An axoneme contains a ring of 9 double microtubules surrounding two central single microtubules. Each outer doublet consists of a ring of 13 filaments (subfiber A) fused to an assembly of 10 filaments (subfiber B). The filaments of the microtubules are composed of two proteins called alpha and beta tubulin. The 11 microtubules forming an axoneme are held together by three types of connectors: subfibers A are joined to the central microtubules by radial spokes; adjacent outer doublets are joined by linkers that consist of a highly elastic protein called nexin; and the central microtubules are joined by a connecting bridge. Finally, every subfiber A bears two arms, an inner arm and an outer arm, both containing the protein dynein.
But how does a cilium work? Experiments have indicated that ciliary motion results from the chemically-powered “walking” of the dynein arms on one microtubule up the neighboring subfiber B of a second microtubule so that the two microtubules slide past each other (Figure 2a and b). However, the protein cross-links between microtubules in an intact cilium prevent neighboring microtubules from sliding past each other by more than a short distance. These cross-links, therefore, convert the dynein-induced sliding motion to a bending motion of the entire axoneme.
Figure 2b. Schematic drawing of part of a cilium. The power stroke of the motor protein, dynein, attached to one microtubule, against subfiber B of a neighboring microtubule causes the fibers to slide past each other. The flexible linker protein, nexin, converts the sliding motion to a bending motion.
Now, let us sit back, review the workings of the cilium, and consider what it implies. Cilia are composed of at least a half dozen proteins: alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, dynein, nexin, spoke protein, and a central bridge protein. These combine to perform one task, ciliary motion, and all of these proteins must be present for the cilium to function. If the tubulins are absent, then there are no filaments to slide; if the dynein is missing, then the cilium remains rigid and motionless; if nexin or the other connecting proteins are missing, then the axoneme falls apart when the filaments slide.
What we see in the cilium, then, is not just profound complexity, but also irreducible complexity on the molecular scale. Recall that by “irreducible complexity” we mean an apparatus that requires several distinct components for the whole to work. My mousetrap must have a base, hammer, spring, catch, and holding bar, all working together, in order to function. Similarly, the cilium, as it is constituted, must have the sliding filaments, connecting proteins, and motor proteins for function to occur. In the absence of any one of those components, the apparatus is useless.
The components of cilia are single molecules. This means that there are no more black boxes to invoke; the complexity of the cilium is final, fundamental. And just as scientists, when they began to learn the complexities of the cell, realized how silly it was to think that life arose spontaneously in a single step or a few steps from ocean mud, so too we now realize that the complex cilium can not be reached in a single step or a few steps. But since the complexity of the cilium is irreducible, then it can not have functional precursors. Since the irreducibly complex cilium can not have functional precursors it can not be produced by natural selection, which requires a continuum of function to work. Natural selection is powerless when there is no function to select. We can go further and say that, if the cilium can not be produced by natural selection, then the cilium was designed.
The Study of “Molecular Evolution”
Other examples of irreducible complexity abound, including aspects of protein transport, blood clotting, closed circular DNA, electron transport, the bacterial flagellum, telomeres, photosynthesis, transcription regulation, and much more. Examples of irreducible complexity can be found on virtually every page of a biochemistry textbook. But if these things cannot be explained by Darwinian evolution, how has the scientific community regarded these phenomena of the past forty years? A good place to look for an answer to that question is in the Journal of Molecular Evolution. JME is a journal that was begun specifically to deal with the topic of how evolution occurs on the molecular level. It has high scientific standards, and is edited by prominent figures in the field. In a recent issue of JME there were published eleven articles; of these, all eleven were concerned simply with the analysis of protein or DNA sequences. None of the papers discussed detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures. In the past ten years JME has published 886 papers. Of these, 95 discussed the chemical synthesis of molecules thought to be necessary for the origin of life, 44 proposed mathematical models to improve sequence analysis, 20 concerned the evolutionary implications of current structures, and 719 were analyses of protein or polynucleotide sequences. There were zero papers discussing detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures. This is not a peculiarity of JME. No papers are to be found that discuss detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Nature, Science, the Journal of Molecular Biology or, to my knowledge, any journal whatsoever.
Sequence comparisons overwhelmingly dominate the literature of molecular evolution. But sequence comparisons simply can’t account for the development of complex biochemical systems any more than Darwin’s comparison of simple and complex eyes told him how vision worked. Thus in this area science is mute. This means that when we infer that complex biochemical systems were designed, we are contradicting no experimental result, we are in conflict with no theoretical study. No experiments needs to be questioned, but the interpretation of all experiments must now be reexamined, just as the results of experiments that were consistent with a Newtonian view of the universe had to be reinterpreted when the waveparticle duality of matter was discerned.
It is often said that science must avoid any conclusions which smack of the supernatural. But this seems to me to be both bad logic and bad science. Science is not a game in which arbitrary rules are used to decide what explanations are to be permitted. Rather, it is an effort to make true statements about physical reality. It was only about sixty years ago that the expansion of the universe was first observed. This fact immediately suggested a singular event–that at some time in the distant past the universe began expanding from an extremely small size. To many people this inference was loaded with overtones of a supernatural event–the creation, the beginning of the universe. The prominent physicist A.S. Eddington probably spoke for many physicists in voicing his disgust with such a notion 8:
Philosophically, the notion of an abrupt beginning to the present order of Nature is repugnant to me, as I think it must be to most; and even those who would welcome a proof of the intervention of a Creator will probably consider that a single windingup at some remote epoch is not really the kind of relation between God and his world that brings satisfaction to the mind.
Nonetheless, the Big Bang hypothesis was embraced by physics and over the years has proven to be a very fruitful paradigm. The point here is that physics followed the data where it seemed to lead, even though some thought the model gave aid and comfort to religion. In the present day, as biochemistry multiplies examples of fantastically complex molecular systems, systems which discourage even an attempt to explain how they may have arisen, we should take a lesson from physics. The conclusion of design flows naturally from the data; we should not shrink from it; we should embrace it and build on it.
In concluding, it is important to realize that we are not inferring design from what we do not know, but from what we do know. We are not inferring design to account for a black box, but to account for an open box. A man from a primitive culture who sees an automobile might guess that it was powered by the wind or by an antelope hidden under the car, but when he opens up the hood and sees the engine he immediately realizes that it was designed. In the same way biochemistry has opened up the cell to examine what makes it run and we see that it, too, was designed.
It was a shock to people of the nineteenth century when they discovered, from observations science had made, that many features of the biological world could be ascribed to the elegant principle of natural selection. It is a shock to us in the twentieth century to discover, from observations science has made, that the fundamental mechanisms of life cannot be ascribed to natural selection, and therefore were designed. But we must deal with our shock as best we can and go on. The theory of undirected evolution is already dead, but the work of science continues.
This paper was originally presented in the Summer of 1994 at the meeting ofthe C.S. Lewis Society, Cambridge University.
Wednesday, April 1st, 2009
Once again, a natural phenomena explained by Matrix models…
See this interesting article at <p><a href=”http://www.physorg.com/news157627187.html”> </a></p><p>(PhysOrg.com) –
And below, see the explanations from the Matrix Theory…
As highway traffic increases, you’d probably expect a traffic jam, where vehicles slow down due to the high density. While traffic jams are a common occurrence on our highways, high density traffic has completely different effects for ants traveling on trails. As a new study has found, ants don’t have traffic jams. Rather, as ant traffic density increases, the traffic maintains the same average velocity as at low densities.</p>
The explanations from Matrix Theory and LUCA ( the text was edited in comments, following the article in PhysOrg.com
The Physics and Thermodynamics Source of Ants Traffic Behavior
Everybody can understand this ants behavior seeing the anatomy of LUCA, The Last Universal Common Ancestral, because it is a genetic and inherited behavior from that ancestral. This behavior came from the so called inanimate Physics, the same that does not allow electrons changing speed in trail inside wires, which should provoke a short circuit. Ants have no brains for traffic engineering, what is working here are the laws of atoms constituting the bodies of ants. The poster below called tFW is right saying that, The difference here, between ants and humans, is that every ant knows and accepts it’s part in the machine. Ants are like machines because LUCA was a system machine-like (a Newtonian biological machine) and LUCA is encrypted inside the genetic code of every living being. When looking to the anatomy of LUCA, you can see the origins of this transport behavior in the channels of communication among the seven parts or systemic functions. It is traffic obeying a clockwise rhythm. If the traffic increases velocity or slow down, all bits walking inside those channels performs the same speed.
Let’s see what LUCA says about the article:
1 ARTICLE On the other hand, human transportation systems still reflect a certain desire for freedom and individuality.
LUCA Ants, as primitive specie has strong genetic behavior mimicking the last ancestral. The last ancestor has a body like a machine, it is a perfect closed system. So, ants are like parts of a machine, they works as machine. Human beings, since that is a specie very distant from the ancestral, and have the spectacular mutation developing counsciousness, keeps iself as opened system. At any opened system, the parts can acts autonomous and individually. Ants can not.
2 ARTICLE As the researchers suggested, perhaps evolution has optimized ant traffic flow, since ants are known to have highly developed social behaviors.
LUCA It is not about optimization by evolution, but, it is about progress in a process of reproduction. Every element in biosphere, included ants, is a step in the ptocess of terrestrial reproduction of LUCA. Ants does not have highly developed social behaviors, but is a kind of biological system that the best has made in mimicking the social system of the ancestral. Every detail in the ants society you can see in the anatomy of LUCA billions years before life origins at Earth.
3 ARTICLE In their study, the scientists observed that ants tend to form platoons in which they move at almost identical velocities, allowing them to travel %u201Cbumper-to-bumper%u201D while maintaining their velocity. At higher densities, platoons merge to form longer platoons.
LUCA The platoons are ants way of mimicking the waves of time that advances inside the systemic circuit of LUCA. You can have a better vision of those waves with an analogy of a stone thrown in the water of a lake. Each layer of the last wave contains quantities of bits and no platoon changes velocity because the waves does not also. When all later bits arrives to the last wave, a new and larger wave is formed, always longer than the last one.
4 ARTICLE For the ants, an efficient transport system is essential for the survival of a colony
LUCA Yes, they are being driven by the ability of the atoms of their bodies. In the body of LUCA, these atoms are driven in a perfect and efficient transport system, if not, the whole system self-destroy and LUCA dies.
5 ARTICLE As he explained, understanding ant behavior will require further study: %u201CNow entomologists have to connect this behavior of ants to their %u2018thinking and sensing%u2019 process. Our work opens up the possibility of collaborations between entomologists, physicists, mathematical modelers and traffic scientists.
LUCA The best contributor to understand ant behavior and everything else in biosphere is the knowledge of the LUCA anatomy. See below how the models of LUCA already had suggest to me looking for quorum sensing when I was inquiring about the ant transport behavior.
6 ARTICLE the scientists suggest that ant traffic might be more analogous to human pedestrian traffic.
LUCA Sorry, it is not. Human pedestrian traffic is about opened system, and ants walking in trail are about the genetic inheritance from a closed system.
7 ARTICLE They plan to explore this analogy in the future, and they predict that their results could have applications in swarm intelligence, ant-based computer algorithms, and traffic engineering.
LUCA Sorry, the study about ants traffic behavior can not be useful for human traffic engineering. Humans are not robots. Ok, we can use it for planning driverless vehicles. Because the closed social system, the ants social system is decentralized, without the direction of a controller. Indeed there is a supreme controller, but he does not belongs to the system, he is invisible to the parts. The controller is the result of the sum of informations of all parts plus the information that emerges from the fuzzy logic inside the system. In other words, the controller is the system itself. The set of parts build the system-controller, like the human brain build the mind. But the mind is the controller invisible to the parts and the mind, through central nervous system, is behind the quorum sensing inside the human body. The most viable application in technology, I think, is in robotics, in self organizing networks such as the SECOAS, Self-Organizing Collegiate Sensor, environmental monitoring system.
8 ARTICLE As the example of the ant trail shows, non-egoistic behavior could improve the situation for almost everybody. However, this will be difficult to achieve since, very much in contrast to the ants, drivers and their cars are very different
LUCA The genetic inheritance of ants, from an ancestral machine like, makes that every ant be altruist. Because they are merely organs of a system, the system is a closed one and closed system is the extreme selfishness possible in this world. We humans inherited the selfish gene from LUCA, because LUCA choose to be a closed system, cutting relations with everything else in the Universe. But, the selfishness of the system is based over the altruism of its parts, which makes everything for the well being of the system. Since the parts are nurtured and accommodated and protected by the selfish system, it means that in fact the altruism of its parts is selfishness also. In another words, the selfish system is result of the sum of the altruism in its direction from every part. And human beings society is opened systems%u2026 yet.
9 ARTICLE Another interesting point is the relevance of communication between the vehicles. On ant trails this is achieved mostly on a chemical basis.
LUCA That is it! It is in chemistry, thermodynamics, Physics, that this interesting study must go now. We will learn a lot, with the help of ants transport behavior.
I can not do this job but, a quickly looking to the Matrix models of LUCA, at http://theuniversalmatrix.com . suggest to me how could be a method for studying it:
The ants transport behavior is based in the hormone called pheromone. It seems that specifically it is about the pheromone releaser, or signal pheromone. These pheromones are based on hydrocarbons. The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. Carbon is the atom choose for to constitutes the organic matter because it is the atom that mimics a system like LUCA: the number of protons, six, performs the six systemic functions like LUCA. This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is referred to as catenation, the physic-chemical scenario behind this transport behavior. Social ants system, like the body of LUCA is a closed system where there is decentralized system, because no individual is in charge of directing or making decisions for the colony. The general commander is invisible; it is outside of the physical anatomy, because he is the proper system, the sum of informations from every part plus the informations acquired by internal fuzzy logic due the miscegenation of functions. Then the command seems to be quorum sensing. The transport in the trail is a kind of catenation, the ability of a chemical element to form a long chain-like structure via a series of covalent bonds. The covalence is performed by a bi-polar link: when walking, the ants are in a chain where the back, polar a, of an ant is followed by the head, polar b, of the next ant. Quorum sensing can also be used to coordinate the behavior of autonomous robot swarms. Using a process similar to that used by Temnothorax ants, robots can make rapid group decisions without the direction of a controller [Quorum sensing can be a useful tool for improving the function of self-organizing networks. Finally, Some hydrocarbons also are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Which drives our attention to our astronomic ancestral, Mr. LUCA.