(Please, see the same article in Portuguese “Artigos”: there are more information)
At the “home” page of this website there is the news that The Matrix/DNA formula is suggesting a rational explanation for the question “Why life turned left” . Everybody can see it clear if looking to the formula. The left side of Matrix’s face ( from F 2 to F 4 ) is where a new body is born, growing, till arriving to maturity and ability for reproduction. The energy is up in a phase of construction. It is the force among the chaos that drives matter to an ordered state. But the energy is covered, occult, as the body’s nucleus, then, there is more mass than energy. If we see the formula in its state as astronomical system, this left face goes from the baby-astro to pulsar. In another hand, the piece of circuitry comprised from F 6 to F7 (and part of F 1) is the right side of Matrix’s face when the body got maturity and immediately the energy began to fall, a phenomenon that can be measured as entropy. The energy gains the surface of the body, and the mass begins to disappear. In its shape as astronomic system, this piece of circuitry begins with a supernova and goes to the stellar cadaver ( nebula off dust).
Then… why Nature choose only the left face for building biological systems? Why not a mixed moisture with left and right faces? The explanation is rational. If the first molecules were complete, life should be in its initial stage till today, forever. It never would be able to do the next evolutionary step. Because a complete molecule, containing the left and right faces, has the force of death with her. It would be a copy of closed system, just as the astronomic system. Nature needed a opened system, one that kept the doors opened to evolution, to the next evolutionary steps.
Ok, but, the problem of the NASA-Astrobiology team is how to identify, in the actual state of any planet or moon, those states that are suitable for beginning the biological formation. As a poor hard-work man I have no time just now for trying to get the suggestions from the Matrix formula. The issue becomes more complicated because I am very confused when calculating what kind of evolutionary product could be naturally obtained from a mechanical/Newtonian system, like the Matrix formula is suggesting as the astronomic system creator of life. It is possible to do that, I believe, but it needs a lot of theoretical calculations and I have no time for doing it. Another problem is that we need to study the atomic formula of several natural elements, like methane, sulfur, and making comparisons with the atomic formula of the first amino-acids, for detecting the complementary systemic circuits. I know that the NASA team will not do that because they don’t know and don’t understand the rationality behind the Matrix formula. The final conclusion is that our beloved Humanity needs to know where else there is life and where else is suitable for life, because we will need to move out from this loved planet-home one day and we need the wealth, the resources for improving the life of billions of human beings, which source can be in others life’s forms. So, I will continuing this research…
How Life Turned Left
July 25, 2012 / Written by: Bill Steigerwald
Comments by Louis Morelli ( waiting moderation) (Tue, Aug, 14, 2012)
1) Please, why we are calling “left” and “right” if there is no possible point of reference? Look to the draw above. If you take the left-hand aspartic acid (tall peak in the center) and turn it 180* horizontally and at same time, vertically, and put it side by side with the molecule at smaller peak, keeping both vertically, the right will be left and vice-versa. But, then, the result is a figure in the same shape of DNA, which was the normal course of evolution. I know that this issue is only a human concept, like the concept of left and right human hands is wrong since that Earth is rounded and has no point of reference. But the position of molecules here is very important because at every natural system’s circuitry the left side is always “energy up” and the right is “energy down” ( if the model of natural system in the Matrix/DNA Theory is correct). This is about the direction of information inside a system, and if we don’t know the right direction our research and meanings could be wrong. Why life has chosen the left hand? Because it is energy up, where there is no entropy for stopping the initial start of life. Any answers? Thanks…
2) Ask a Question to an Astrobiologist, by Louis Morelli
How Life Turned Left
(Sorry to authors of this article that I am coping it here, but this copy will be here only temporary: is the unique way I have for to study it in deep and registering the useful data end the suggestions from the Matrix.)
Researchers analyzing meteorite fragments that fell on a frozen lake in Canada have developed an explanation for the origin of life’s handedness – why living things only use molecules with specific orientations. The work also gave the strongest evidence to date that liquid water inside an asteroid leads to a strong preference of left-handed over right-handed forms of some common protein amino acids in meteorites. The result makes the search for extraterrestrial life more challenging.
“Our analysis of the amino acids in meteorite fragments from Tagish Lake gave us one possible explanation for why all known life uses only left-handed versions of amino acids to build proteins,” said Dr. Daniel Glavin of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Glavin is lead author of a paper on this research published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science.
In January, 2000, a large meteoroid exploded in the atmosphere over northern British Columbia, Canada, and rained fragments across the frozen surface of Tagish Lake. Because many people witnessed the fireball, pieces were collected within days and kept preserved in their frozen state. This ensured that there was very little contamination from terrestrial life. “The Tagish Lake meteorite continues to reveal more secrets about the early Solar System the more we investigate it,” said Dr. Christopher Herd of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, a co-author on the paper who provided samples of the Tagish Lake meteorite for the team to analyze. “This latest study gives us a glimpse into the role that water percolating through asteroids must have played in making the left-handed amino acids that are so characteristic of all life on Earth.”
Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life, used in everything from structures like hair to enzymes, the catalysts that speed up or regulate chemical reactions. Just as the 26 letters of the alphabet are arranged in limitless combinations to make words, life uses 20 different amino acids in a huge variety of arrangements to build millions of different proteins. Amino acid molecules can be built in two ways that are mirror images of each other, like your hands. Although life based on right-handed amino acids would presumably work fine, they can’t be mixed. “Synthetic proteins created using a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids just don’t work,” says Dr. Jason Dworkin ofNASA Goddard, co-author of the study and head of the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory, where the analysis was performed.
Since life can’t function with a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids, researchers want to know how life – at least, life on Earth — got set up with the left-handed ones. “The handedness observed in biological molecules – left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars – is a property important for molecular recognition processes and is thought to be a prerequisite for life,” said Dworkin. All ordinary methods of synthetically creating amino acids result in equal mixtures of left- and right-handed amino acids. Therefore, how the nearly exclusive production of one hand of such molecules arose from what were presumably equal mixtures of left and right molecules in a prebiotic world has been an area of intensive research.
The team ground up samples of the Tagish Lake meteorites, mixed them into a hot-water solution, then separated and identified the molecules in them using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. “We discovered that the samples had about four times as many left-handed versions of aspartic acid as the opposite hand,” says Glavin. Aspartic acid is an amino acid used in every enzyme in the human body. It is also used to make the sugar substitute Aspartame. “Interestingly, the same meteorite sample showed only a slight left-hand excess (no more than eight percent) for alanine, another amino acid used by life.”
“At first, this made no sense, because if these amino acids came from contamination by terrestrial life, both amino acids should have large left-handed excesses, because both are common in biology,” says Glavin. “However, a large left-hand excess in one and not the other tells us that they were not created by life but instead were made inside the Tagish Lake asteroid.” The team confirmed that the amino acids were probably created in space using isotope analysis.
Isotopes are versions of an element with different masses; for example, carbon 13 is a heavier, and less common, variety of carbon. Since the chemistry of life prefers lighter isotopes, amino acids enriched in the heavier carbon 13 were likely created in space.
“We found that the aspartic acid and alanine in our Tagish Lake samples were highly enriched in carbon 13, indicating they were probably created by non-biological processes in the parent asteroid,” said Dr. Jamie Elsila of NASAGoddard, a co-author on the paper who performed the isotopic analysis. This is the first time that carbon isotope measurements have been reported for these amino acids in Tagish Lake. The carbon 13 enrichment, combined with the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine, provides very strong evidence that some left-handed proteinogenic amino acids — ones used by life to make proteins — can be produced in excess in asteroids, according to the team.
Some have argued that left-handed amino acid excesses in meteorites were formed by exposure to polarized radiation in the solar nebula – the cloud of gas and dust from which asteroids, and eventually the Solar System, were formed. However, in this case, the left-hand aspartic acid excesses are so large that they cannot be explained by polarized radiation alone. The team believes that another process is required.
Additionally, the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine gave the team a critical clue as to how these amino acids could have been made inside the asteroid, and therefore how a large left-hand excess could arise before life originated on Earth.
“One thing that jumped out at me was that alanine and aspartic acid can crystallize differently when you have mixtures of both left-handed and right-handed molecules,” said Dr. Aaron Burton, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow at NASA Goddard and a co-author on the study. “This led us to find several studies where researchers have exploited the crystallization behavior of molecules like aspartic acid to get left-handed or right-handed excesses. Because alanine forms different kinds of crystals, these same processes would produce equal amounts of left- and right-handed alanine. We need to do some more experiments, but this explanation has the potential to explain what we see in the Tagish Lake meteorite and other meteorites.”
The team believes a small initial left-hand excess could get amplified by crystallization and dissolution from a saturated solution with liquid water. Some amino acids, like aspartic acid, have a shape that lets them fit together in a pure crystal – one comprised of just left-handed or right-handed molecules. For these amino acids, a small initial left- or right-hand excess could become greatly amplified at the expense of the opposite-handed crystals, similar to the way a large snowball gathers more snow and gets bigger more rapidly when rolled downhill than a small one. Other amino acids, like alanine, have a shape that prefers to join together with their mirror image to make a crystal, so these crystals are comprised of equal numbers of left- and right-handed molecules. As these “hybrid” crystals grow, any small initial excess would tend to be washed out for these amino acids. A requirement for both of these processes is a way to convert left-handed to right-handed molecules, and vice-versa, while they are dissolved in the solution.
This process only amplifies a small excess that already exists. Perhaps a tiny initial left-hand excess was created by conditions in the solar nebula. For example, polarized ultraviolet light or other types of radiation from nearby stars might favor the creation of left-handed amino acids or the destruction of right-handed ones, according to the team. This initial left-hand excess could then get amplified in asteroids by processes like crystallization. Impacts from asteroids and meteorites could deliver this material to Earth, and left-handed amino acids might have been incorporated into emerging life due to their greater abundance, according to the team. Also, similar enrichments of left-handed amino acids by crystallization could have occurred on Earth in ancient sediments that had water flowing through them, such as the bottoms of rivers, lakes, or seas, according to the team.
The result complicates the search for extraterrestrial life – like microbial life hypothesized to dwell beneath the surface of Mars, for example. “Since it appears a non-biological process can create a left-hand excess in some kinds of amino acids, we can’t use such an excess alone as proof of biological activity,” says Glavin.
The research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, the NASA Cosmochemistry Program, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
The paper, “Unusual nonterrestrial l-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite,” was published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and is available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.