Archive for the ‘Exobiology’ Category

Ionosfera estudada por ICON e debate no REDDIT – O Planeta respira?

Thursday, October 17th, 2019

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Postei (atrasado) minha questao no LIVE da NASA no REDDIT, a qual está copiada abaixo:

https://www.reddit.com/r/space/comments/den4zi/on_oct_9_nasa_is_launching_a_new_mission_the/?linkId=74903894&fbclid=IwAR1CNqbHjOMN4ho-nIAv7ue1JfOLusIv60yAohWDKa98-6xBX5YBE6mwWQ0

On Oct. 9, NASA is launching a new mission, the Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON for short. Ask us anything about the science of ICON and the mission’s upcoming launch

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Informacoes nos textos:

– – The ionosphere is the densest plasma between you and the sun, so it’s a remarkable feature of our planet and a “natural laboratory” for plasma physics. Because it is a plasma, it has the property of refracting and reflecting radio waves. That property is both useful and problematic, depending on what one is trying to do. In any case, the difficulty presented is understanding why the density changes so much from one day to the next, particularly where the plasma is very dense at low latitudes. Understanding this variability is ICON’s goal

– the dynamic zone high in our atmosphere where Earth’s weather from below meets space weather from above, helping us untangle what drives changes in this region — changes that can affect our technology.

Matrix: Então a ionosfera que é um plasma denso funciona como uma membrana da Terra. As mudanças são mais em termos eletromagnéticos, sugerindo que as trocas se dão entre o campo magnético solar e de outros planetas com o campo magnetico terrestre. A evolução da Fisica para a Biologia sugere que ocorreu mais a nivel de campo magnetico, pois o a nivel de materia organica da célula nao parece ter correspondencia com o nivel de trocas de materia inorganica entre astros ( a não ser que estas trocas astronomicas ocorram em tempos astronomicos que não captamos) .

O que são radio waves? Radio é a ultima frequencia, a mais longa, das ondas. Isto significa que… temos um problema. Esta certo que a ionosfera seja o local da radio wave emitida desde o nucleo terreste, porem nosso planeta não esta na posição do sistema solar relacionada com radio wave e sim com a quarta frequencia, a luz visivel. Qual seria o efeito do encontro entre ondas da setima frequencia com ondas da quarta frequência? Encontro entre F6 e F4? Cadáver estelar e pulsar? O pulsar realimenta e ressuscita o cadaver a cada ciclo. estaria a Terra morrendo a cada dia e sendo ressuscitada, uma especie de respiração astronomica?

Light-The-Electro-Magnetic-Spectrum by MatrixDNA THeory

 

Ver  as propriedades da membrana celular e da inonosfera e comparar as duas.

– – what causes Earth’s ionosphere to change so remarkably from day to day?

Matrix: realmente isto é surpresa pois fenomenos astronomicos deveriam ocorrer na escala astronomica do tempo… O que causa a membrana celular mudar a cada segundo?

ICON is instrumented to pull out some key quantities like the velocity of the wind and the temperatures at the boundary of space at about 100 km. ICON is sensing remotely the neutral wind speed while directly measuring the ions and electrons that make up the ionosphere. ICON focuses on the dynamic zone high in our atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather above. In this region, the tenuous gases are anything but quiet, as a mix of neutral and charged particles travel through in giant winds. These winds can change on a wide variety of time scales — due to Earth’s seasons, the day’s heating and cooling, and incoming bursts of radiation from the sun. Specifically ICON will add detailed measurements of the movement, temperature and composition of the ionosphere-thermosphere system

Matrix: Então Icon trabalha exclusivamente no nivel fisico e apenas medindo variações na velocidade dos ventos e na temperatura?

— NASA’s GOLD instrument which provides hemispheric images of the air glow (brilho, incandescencia) bands in the ionosphere

Matrix: Então a partneship que estão falando fe entre o ICON e GOLD, o qual ‘e outro satélite/instrumento e pertence a NASA e que providencia hemisféricas imagens do brilho das bandas da ionosfera.

— SPACE WEATHER : The easiest example of space weather is the aurora (or northern and southern lights)’ .

Space weather comes also in the form of day to day changes in the ionosphere that aren’t easy to predict right now. These aren’t related to geomagnetic storms, but come naturally from what we think is energy and momentum propagating up from the lower atmosphere. Some places can see the ionosphere change by 2x from one day to the next without the sun or solar wind changing much, so understanding where that comes from is a critical problem for ICON

Matrix: Então a mudança do clima na ionosfera é mais causada from inside-out que from out-inside. Isto significa que a Terra, desde deu nucleo, é a causa das mudanças diarias. O que muda diariamente no planeta? O movimento de rotação? Como a posição de locais na membrana terrestre pode ser afetada pelo momentum de cada rotação? The southern hot spot is part of the old Solar Cycle 24. The northern hot spot is from the new Solar Cycle 25. Ver o que fe Solar Cycle.

 – – AURORA : the auroral ovals can move to lower latitudes – allowing more energy into Earth’s ionosphere. The aurora represents a current system in the sky – these flowing currents can adversely affect the power grids, pipelines and under sea cables. 

– –  the Van Allen Radiation Belts – these belts encircle the Earth wrapping around the equator at a distance of about 8000-38000 miles above the surface. These are regions of intense radiation which can cause problems for spacecraft which orbit the Earth. The radiation can cause charging of sensitive spacecraft hardware as well as damaging solar panels.

– – Theories: When one theory is proven, ten more questions will follow because natural science never ends.

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Minhas perguntas:

MatrixDNA  – 1 point·10 minutes ago – 10/07/19

 Sorry my weird questions because I am a native from the jungle, American citizen but English is not native language. So, feel free to not read my questions.

– Is there any evolutionary biologist in the ICON’s team? If so, my personal Matrix/DNA Theory is suggesting that he/her must be doing comparative anatomy between three natural systems: the cell’s system membrane and its ancestrals system, the Earth’s planetary membrane called ionosphere, plus its ancestral system, the galactic’s nuclei event membrane called event horizon. Or does the team believing that universal evolution is divided into cosmological and biological evolution with no linear evolutionary links between them? If you do not believe in that theory, how to discover first deeps causes of ionosphere events? I am doing these calculations but, do you think that I am “away far off the beam”?

– The ionosphere should be a kind of membrane. It should pushes out radio waves ( the seventh electromagnetic frequency) and pulls down visible light (the fourth frequency). My theoretical naturalist model called Matrix/DNA Theory is suggesting that when these two frequencies meets up, happens a kind of self-recycling, or a system’s respiration. So, these inter-changes seems to mimic a breath (respiration?) process of the planet in the solar system.  While human bodies breath are a minute-to-minute event, it is logical that astronomic breathing should be day-to-day event. So, the ionosphere day-to-day changes should reveal a common pattern at long times. Is the ICON/NASA team searching any patterns? Is my theory totally “away off the beam”?

 

 

Qual a chance de se encontrar mais inteligencias no Universo?

Saturday, October 5th, 2019

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Artigo no Pharyngula:

https://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2019/10/04/worse-than-lovecraft-what-if-the-old-ones-were-real-but-theyre-all-extinct/#comments 

Meu comentario enviado em 10 (out) – 05 – 19 ( aguardando moderacao).

Inteligencia deve ser comum no Universo, de acordo com os modelos e formulas da Matrix/DNA Theory. A dificuldade de humanos aceitar isso deve-se ao desconhecimento sobre sistemas naturais e suas influências na Natureza Universal, conhecimento impossível sem conhecer a formula universal de todos estes sistemas descoberta na teoria. Inteligência humana é uma evolução dos instintos animais os quais são produtos da evolução das forças físicas naturais, porém a inteligência provém de uma força física pouco conhecida: a propriedade emergente de auto-identidade de todos os sistemas naturais, a qual surge da soma de todas as informações de todas as partes mais as informações das interações internas e externas destas partes. essa propriedade se assemelha a softwares, portanto os sistemas naturais são compostos de um software e hardware.

Sugerem ainda os cálculos da teoria que, para que se manifeste inteligência do tipo humano é necessário que um sistema tenha desenvolvido um órgão hospedeiro do núcleo do software, no caso humano é o neocortex cerebral. Mas humanos são meros sistemas com base no carbono e organização biológica da matéria que é produto dos sistemas mecanicistas astronômicos. Portanto sistemas naturais gerados por sistemas astronômicos podem evoluir para inteligentes, porem, a cada sete elementos na tabela periódica o oitavo elemento repete as propriedades do carbono e portanto pode ser a base para outros sistemas muito diferentes do biológico que podem desenvolver inteligência. Inclusive é possível encontrar-mos em algum astro sistemas naturais inteligentes feitos de tungstênio, mais parecidos com um carro… ou  com o Curiosity…

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Intelligence must be common in the Universe, according to Matrix/DNA Theory’s models and formulas. The difficulty of humans to accept this probability is due to ignorance about natural systems and their influences on Universal Nature, which knowledge is impossible without knowing the universal formula of all these systems discovered by the theory. Human intelligence is an evolution of animal instincts which are products of the evolution of natural physical forces coming from atoms systems, but intelligence comes from a little known physical force: the emergent property of self-identity of all natural systems, which arises from the sum of all information from all parties plus information from the internal and external interactions of these parties. This property resembles software, so, natural systems are made up of a kind of natural software and hardware.
The theory calculations also suggest that, in order to manifest human type intelligence, it is necessary that a system has developed a host organ of the software core, the F1 function of Matrix/DNA formula. In the human case it is the cerebral neocortex. But humans are mere carbon-based systems and biological organization of matter that is the evolutionary product from astronomical mechanistic systems. Therefore natural systems generated by astronomical systems can evolve to intelligent, but every seven elements in the periodic table the eighth element repeats the properties of carbon, and can therefore be the basis for other very different systems from biological that can develop intelligence. Even will be possible that there are in some stars intelligent natural systems made of tungsten that seems like a car … or like Curiosity…


Para micróbios, imagens ofuscadas de nebulosas de gaz da Via Láctea.

Thursday, July 25th, 2019

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Avatar

Como um microbio situado numa célula dentro do corpo humano veria as coisas e órgãos longínquos a sua volta: nuvens de átomos aparentemente sem sentido… é como estamos vendo o mundo longínquo a nossa volta. Descobriremos um dia que não são meras formas sem sentido, mas sim, formam sistemas funcionais, quase-vivos? Apenas estamos vendo coisas que refletem luz e vibram apenas numa das sete faixas do espectro da luz e mais algumas nebulosas imagens da dimensão vizinha captadas pelo sensores para Raios-X do Chandra.

Obviamente estas galaxias tem que serem muito mais complexas do que imaginamos, senão não teriam a capacidade de se reproduzirem como as complexas células da vida dentro delas próprias. Foi pensando nisso que iniciei uma investigação própria por um método contrario ao aplicado pelas ciências oficiais: calculando a evolução ao inverso, iniciando pelo que conhecemos existindo aqui e agora e retornando no tempo ate o Big Bang. E sim, tive que recalcular e obter novos modelos teóricos dos sistemas astronômicos e atômicos para se justificarem como inseridos nesse tronco da arvore da evolução universal. E sim, ao contrario de tudo que podia imaginar, meus modelos estão sugerindo que galaxias e átomos possuem uma cobertura de fenômenos biológicos, o que os tornam quase-vivos. Veja no meu avatar como, por exemplo, as diferentes formas dos astros surgem de um único astro, do mesmo processo do ciclo vital que produz as diferentes formas do seu corpo. E entenda porque nossa tecnologia e medicina ainda estão tao atrasadas a ponto de manter 90% da população mundial torturada neste absurdo ciclo da miséria. Veja como a Natureza la fora em estado de ordem resolve as imperfeições do nosso estado de caos.

Quase-órgãos, ancestrais simples de estômagos, figados, corações… conectados metabolicamente por processos mecânicos, isso pode ser o que estão constituindo essas imagens que meus pequeninos olhos atrelados a um pobre e pequenino cérebro dentro de um microbio cósmico podem ver, estarrecidos, incrédulos e maravilhados.

Via Láctea: divulgadas novas imagens da galáxia

From Chandra X-ray Observatory

From Chandra X-ray Observatory

How Life Turned Left? Suggestion From Matrix/DNA Theory to NASA-Astrobiology Research

Tuesday, August 14th, 2012

(Please, see the same article in Portuguese “Artigos”:  there are more information)

At the “home” page of this website there is the news that The Matrix/DNA formula is suggesting a rational explanation for the question “Why life turned left” . Everybody can see it clear if looking to the formula. The left side of Matrix’s face ( from F 2 to F 4 ) is where a new body is born, growing, till arriving to maturity and ability for reproduction. The energy is up in a phase of construction. It is the force among the chaos that drives matter to an ordered state. But the energy is covered, occult, as the body’s nucleus, then, there is more mass than energy. If we see the formula in its state as astronomical system, this left face goes from the baby-astro to pulsar. In another hand, the piece of circuitry comprised from F 6 to F7 (and part of F 1) is the right side of Matrix’s face when the body got maturity and immediately the energy began to fall, a phenomenon that can be measured as entropy. The energy gains the surface of the body, and the mass begins to disappear. In its shape as astronomic system, this piece of circuitry begins with a supernova and goes to the stellar cadaver ( nebula off dust).

Then… why Nature choose only the left face for building biological systems? Why not a mixed moisture with left and right faces? The explanation is rational. If the first molecules were complete, life should be in its initial stage till today, forever. It never would be able to do the next evolutionary step. Because a complete molecule, containing the left and right faces, has the force of death with her. It would be a copy of closed system, just as the astronomic system. Nature needed a opened system, one that kept the doors opened to evolution, to the next evolutionary steps.

Ok, but, the problem of the NASA-Astrobiology team is how to identify, in the actual state of any planet or moon, those states that are suitable for beginning the biological formation. As a poor hard-work man I have no time just now for trying to get the suggestions from the Matrix formula. The issue becomes more complicated because I am very confused when calculating what kind of evolutionary product could be naturally obtained from a mechanical/Newtonian system, like the Matrix formula is suggesting as the astronomic system creator of life. It is possible to do that, I believe, but it needs a lot of theoretical calculations and I have no time for doing it. Another problem is that we need to study the atomic formula of several natural elements, like methane, sulfur, and making comparisons with the atomic formula of the first amino-acids, for detecting the complementary systemic circuits. I know that the NASA team will not do that because they don’t know and don’t understand the rationality behind the Matrix formula. The final conclusion is that our beloved Humanity needs to know where else there is life and where else is suitable for life, because we will need to move out from this loved planet-home one day and we need the wealth, the resources for improving the life of billions of human beings, which source can be in others life’s forms. So, I will continuing this research…

How Life Turned Left

July 25, 2012 / Written by: Bill Steigerwald

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/how-life-turned-left/?commented=0#txpCommentInputForm

Left and Right Handed Molecules

Left and Right Handed Molecules - This is an artist's concept of excess left-hand aspartic acid created in asteroids and delivered to Earth via meteorite impacts. The line at the bottom is a chromatogram showing that left-hand aspartic acid (tall peak in the center) was four times more abundant in the meteorite sample than right-hand aspartic acid (smaller peak to the left). Credit: NASA/Hrybyk-Keith, Mary P.

Comments by Louis Morelli ( waiting moderation) (Tue, Aug, 14, 2012)

1) Please, why we are calling “left” and “right” if there is no possible point of reference? Look to the draw above. If you take the left-hand aspartic acid (tall peak in the center) and turn it 180* horizontally and at same time, vertically, and put it side by side with the molecule at smaller peak, keeping both vertically, the right will be left and vice-versa. But, then, the result is a figure in the same shape of DNA, which was the normal course of evolution. I know that this issue is only a human concept, like the concept of left and right human hands is wrong since that Earth is rounded and has no point of reference. But the position of molecules here is very important because at every natural system’s circuitry the left side is always “energy up” and the right is “energy down” ( if the model of natural system in the Matrix/DNA Theory is correct). This is about the direction of information inside a system, and if we don’t know the right direction our research and meanings could be wrong. Why life has chosen the left hand? Because it is energy up, where there is no entropy for stopping the initial start of life. Any answers? Thanks…

2) Ask a Question to an Astrobiologist, by Louis Morelli

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/ask-an-astrobiologist/submit-a-question/#zcrcc6ec1bb803aeccebb4e5fadfe877578

In the Tagish Lake meteorite there was less alanine than aspartic acid, both left-handed. Possible explanations should be:
1) Alanine is as common in living bodies as aspartic acid today, but not in Nature at life’s origins. The strong presence of heavy atoms in alanine suggests that it performs the functions of right handed bi-lateral symmetry. So, why a left handed performs right handed functions? because right handed are entropic functions that brings death to systems, and at the beginning, Nature was in needs of molecules that could fix a reproductive process before dying.
2) Biological systems, aka “life” were created by and inside astronomic systems. So, the later is merely evolutionary step from the earlier. Informations from astronomic systems are transmitted by photons from stellar radiation in a clockwise direction, then, first, are created biological molecules left handed, despite that non-biological are equal amount. Aspartic acid is genuine left-handed with light atoms, then, it is produced more than alanine;
3) Primordial aminoacids were produced by mechanical/Newtonian process and not by biological process, so, the production of both aminoacids could be equal, but nature has selected the left ones because they contains energy up. Please what do you think about these suggestions from a different theoretical cosmological model, called Matrix/DNA Theory?

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How Life Turned Left

(Sorry to authors of this article that I am coping it here, but this copy will be here only temporary: is the unique way I have for to study it in deep and registering the useful data end the suggestions from the Matrix.)

Researchers analyzing meteorite fragments that fell on a frozen lake in Canada have developed an explanation for the origin of life’s handedness – why living things only use molecules with specific orientations. The work also gave the strongest evidence to date that liquid water inside an asteroid leads to a strong preference of left-handed over right-handed forms of some common protein amino acids in meteorites. The result makes the search for extraterrestrial life more challenging.

“Our analysis of the amino acids in meteorite fragments from Tagish Lake gave us one possible explanation for why all known life uses only left-handed versions of amino acids to build proteins,” said Dr. Daniel Glavin of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Glavin is lead author of a paper on this research published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

In January, 2000, a large meteoroid exploded in the atmosphere over northern British Columbia, Canada, and rained fragments across the frozen surface of Tagish Lake. Because many people witnessed the fireball, pieces were collected within days and kept preserved in their frozen state. This ensured that there was very little contamination from terrestrial life. “The Tagish Lake meteorite continues to reveal more secrets about the early Solar System the more we investigate it,” said Dr. Christopher Herd of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, a co-author on the paper who provided samples of the Tagish Lake meteorite for the team to analyze. “This latest study gives us a glimpse into the role that water percolating through asteroids must have played in making the left-handed amino acids that are so characteristic of all life on Earth.”

Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life, used in everything from structures like hair to enzymes, the catalysts that speed up or regulate chemical reactions. Just as the 26 letters of the alphabet are arranged in limitless combinations to make words, life uses 20 different amino acids in a huge variety of arrangements to build millions of different proteins. Amino acid molecules can be built in two ways that are mirror images of each other, like your hands. Although life based on right-handed amino acids would presumably work fine, they can’t be mixed. “Synthetic proteins created using a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids just don’t work,” says Dr. Jason Dworkin ofNASA Goddard, co-author of the study and head of the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory, where the analysis was performed.

Since life can’t function with a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids, researchers want to know how life – at least, life on Earth — got set up with the left-handed ones. “The handedness observed in biological molecules – left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars – is a property important for molecular recognition processes and is thought to be a prerequisite for life,” said Dworkin. All ordinary methods of synthetically creating amino acids result in equal mixtures of left- and right-handed amino acids. Therefore, how the nearly exclusive production of one hand of such molecules arose from what were presumably equal mixtures of left and right molecules in a prebiotic world has been an area of intensive research.

The team ground up samples of the Tagish Lake meteorites, mixed them into a hot-water solution, then separated and identified the molecules in them using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. “We discovered that the samples had about four times as many left-handed versions of aspartic acid as the opposite hand,” says Glavin. Aspartic acid is an amino acid used in every enzyme in the human body. It is also used to make the sugar substitute Aspartame. “Interestingly, the same meteorite sample showed only a slight left-hand excess (no more than eight percent) for alanine, another amino acid used by life.”

“At first, this made no sense, because if these amino acids came from contamination by terrestrial life, both amino acids should have large left-handed excesses, because both are common in biology,” says Glavin. “However, a large left-hand excess in one and not the other tells us that they were not created by life but instead were made inside the Tagish Lake asteroid.” The team confirmed that the amino acids were probably created in space using isotope analysis.

Isotopes are versions of an element with different masses; for example, carbon 13 is a heavier, and less common, variety of carbon. Since the chemistry of life prefers lighter isotopes, amino acids enriched in the heavier carbon 13 were likely created in space.

“We found that the aspartic acid and alanine in our Tagish Lake samples were highly enriched in carbon 13, indicating they were probably created by non-biological processes in the parent asteroid,” said Dr. Jamie Elsila of NASAGoddard, a co-author on the paper who performed the isotopic analysis. This is the first time that carbon isotope measurements have been reported for these amino acids in Tagish Lake. The carbon 13 enrichment, combined with the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine, provides very strong evidence that some left-handed proteinogenic amino acids — ones used by life to make proteins — can be produced in excess in asteroids, according to the team.

Some have argued that left-handed amino acid excesses in meteorites were formed by exposure to polarized radiation in the solar nebula – the cloud of gas and dust from which asteroids, and eventually the Solar System, were formed. However, in this case, the left-hand aspartic acid excesses are so large that they cannot be explained by polarized radiation alone. The team believes that another process is required.

Additionally, the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine gave the team a critical clue as to how these amino acids could have been made inside the asteroid, and therefore how a large left-hand excess could arise before life originated on Earth.

“One thing that jumped out at me was that alanine and aspartic acid can crystallize differently when you have mixtures of both left-handed and right-handed molecules,” said Dr. Aaron Burton, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow at NASA Goddard and a co-author on the study. “This led us to find several studies where researchers have exploited the crystallization behavior of molecules like aspartic acid to get left-handed or right-handed excesses. Because alanine forms different kinds of crystals, these same processes would produce equal amounts of left- and right-handed alanine. We need to do some more experiments, but this explanation has the potential to explain what we see in the Tagish Lake meteorite and other meteorites.”

The team believes a small initial left-hand excess could get amplified by crystallization and dissolution from a saturated solution with liquid water. Some amino acids, like aspartic acid, have a shape that lets them fit together in a pure crystal – one comprised of just left-handed or right-handed molecules. For these amino acids, a small initial left- or right-hand excess could become greatly amplified at the expense of the opposite-handed crystals, similar to the way a large snowball gathers more snow and gets bigger more rapidly when rolled downhill than a small one. Other amino acids, like alanine, have a shape that prefers to join together with their mirror image to make a crystal, so these crystals are comprised of equal numbers of left- and right-handed molecules. As these “hybrid” crystals grow, any small initial excess would tend to be washed out for these amino acids. A requirement for both of these processes is a way to convert left-handed to right-handed molecules, and vice-versa, while they are dissolved in the solution.

This process only amplifies a small excess that already exists. Perhaps a tiny initial left-hand excess was created by conditions in the solar nebula. For example, polarized ultraviolet light or other types of radiation from nearby stars might favor the creation of left-handed amino acids or the destruction of right-handed ones, according to the team. This initial left-hand excess could then get amplified in asteroids by processes like crystallization. Impacts from asteroids and meteorites could deliver this material to Earth, and left-handed amino acids might have been incorporated into emerging life due to their greater abundance, according to the team. Also, similar enrichments of left-handed amino acids by crystallization could have occurred on Earth in ancient sediments that had water flowing through them, such as the bottoms of rivers, lakes, or seas, according to the team.

The result complicates the search for extraterrestrial life – like microbial life hypothesized to dwell beneath the surface of Mars, for example. “Since it appears a non-biological process can create a left-hand excess in some kinds of amino acids, we can’t use such an excess alone as proof of biological activity,” says Glavin.

The research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, the NASA Cosmochemistry Program, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

The paper, “Unusual nonterrestrial l-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite,” was published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and is available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

Bill Steigerwald
William.A.Steigerwald@nasa.gov
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Articles are being posted in Portuguese only

Saturday, January 15th, 2011

Sorry. Since I am not having enough time for translating from Portuguese, for seeing the articles one need to chlick the Brazillian flag above. Also, I understand that the site is not explaining almost nothing about the theory. It is because the site is under construction, I have a lot of writed material but had no time and the special computers skills for doing that. I hope will do it soon. Thanks…

Exobiology and important interview with Stanley Miller

Friday, May 15th, 2009

See http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/NM/miller.php

From Primordial Soup to the Prebiotic Beach

Nos precisamos urgente fazer experiencias que podem levar `a producao de sistemas biologicos a partir de material inorganico. Sugestoes:

1) Elementos da “atmosfera reduzida” (reducing atmosphere) usados por Stanley Miller (methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water) – In the flask at the bottom, he created an “ocean” of water, which he heated, forcing water vapor to circulate through the apparatus. The flask at the top contained an “atmosphere” consisting of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2) and the circulating water vapor. – Porem ao inves de usar descargas eletricas, usar luz ou energia solar.

2) Se nao der resultado, adicionar aqueles componentes material possivelmente obtido do nucleo planetario, parece-me que lixivia?, sulfas (ver aquele velho recorte do fluxo entre nucleo e superficie)