Archive for the ‘Website – Construção’ Category

Website Construction: para montar fórum, livros a ler

terça-feira, maio 14th, 2019

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Antes de escolher, montar um forum ou secao para comentarios, ler um destes livros:

tem varias sugestoes de livros na Amazon, basta clicar um link abaixo e olhar: Customers who bought this item also bought

Building Successful Online Communities: Evidence-Based Social Design (MIT Press) 

https://www.amazon.com/Building-Successful-Online-Communities-Evidence-Based/dp/0262016575/ref=pd_cp_14_2?pd_rd_w=JXAgl&pf_rd_p=ef4dc990-a9ca-4945-ae0b-f8d549198ed6&pf_rd_r=HFMN308EVQ3TC1RV2FA3&pd_rd_r=32c5dda8-75fb-11e9-a9da-2171f603c15c&pd_rd_wg=GdHfb&pd_rd_i=0262016575&psc=1&refRID=HFMN308EVQ3TC1RV2FA3

Community Building on the Web : Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities Paperback – April 6, 2000

https://www.amazon.com/Community-Building-Web-Strategies-Communities/dp/0201874849?tag=swamidass-20

 

Website construction: problemas de “site pobremente socializado”

sexta-feira, abril 12th, 2019

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Theuniversalmatrix.com is tracked by us since September, 2013. Over the time it has been ranked as high as 2 902 499 in the world, while most of its traffic comes from Brazil, where it reached as high as 118 028 position. It was owned by several entities, from LUIZ CARLOS MORELLO to Data Protected Data Protected of Data Protected, it was hosted by SoftLayer Technologies Inc. and HostDime.com Inc.. While was its first registrar, now it is moved to eNom Inc..

Theuniversalmatrix has a mediocre Google pagerank and bad results in terms of Yandex topical citation index. We found that Theuniversalmatrix.com is poorly ‘socialized’ in respect to any social network. According to Siteadvisor and Google safe browsing analytics, Theuniversalmatrix.com is quite a safe domain with no visitor reviews.

Web Archive: Problemas no website

segunda-feira, abril 8th, 2019

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https://web.archive.org/web/20180824124744/http://theuniversalmatrix.com/pt-br/

Pesquisa feita em abril de 2019: Wayback Machine doesn’t have that page archived.

Your connection to this server has been blocked in this server’s firewall.

You need to contact the server owner for further information.

Your blocked IP address is 207.241.231.144

This server’s hostname is logan.hmnoc.net

https://web.archive.org/web/20160829120555/http://theuniversalmatrix.com/pt-br

Wayback Machine doesn’t have that page archived.

Copia da primeira pagina inteira de Artigos para testar

quinta-feira, março 28th, 2019

Website construction: para backups automáticos

março 27th, 2019

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Segundo a dica de um expert do wordpress.org , ele usa este sistema para fazer backup dos sites dele:

https://infinitewp.com/

Single, powerful admin panel
for all your WordPress sites

Optimized for Agencies, Developers & Freelancers

Questao: Isto quer dizer que tenho de fazer outro painel?

Cérebro: Giro dentado continua produzindo neurônios na velhice depois da parada no hipocampo

março 26th, 2019

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O que interessa `a Matrix/DNA aqui? Saber que a produção de neurônios no hipocampo diminui com a idade ao mesmo tempo que novos neurônios continuam sendo produzidos na região do “giro dentado” até os 90 anos. Que diminua no hipocampo estava previsto na formula da Matrix/DNA – F1 enfraquece com o passar do tempo devido a entropia e diminui a produção de F2. Mas que outro F possa produzir neurônios e ainda, continuaria a produzir depois do enfraquecimento de F1, não esta’ previsto. Uma possibilidade é que F4 continue a ejacular as sementes que F1 produziu antes de parar e ainda estavam em F2 e F3. Por isso fica o artigo registrado para se fazer uma pesquisa no que é e como funciona o giro dentado.

Atualização: Oh, yes! Ao ver a anatomia do hipocampo e a forma do giro dentado matei a charada na hora: o giro dentado é a representação cerebral de F2, a zona do horizonte de eventos que circunda F1 (núcleo do hipocampo) e que contem os germes expedidos por F1. Os quais vão se tornarem neurônios quando se tornarem babies… Esta’ explicado e reforçada a teoria da formula. Mas isto significa que a produção de neurônios pelo giro dentado e limitada `a quantidade de germes que ficaram no giro dentado e significa que estes germes não surgiram no giro dentado.

Cientistas revelam que cérebro humano cria novos neurônios até os 90 anos

https://noticias.uol.com.br/ciencia/ultimas-noticias/efe/2019/03/25/cientistas-revelam-que-cerebro-humano-cria-novos-neuronios-ate-os-90-anos.htm

Original paper (Nature, tem que comprar, U$ 9,00):

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is abundant in neurologically healthy subjects and drops sharply in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0375-9

…. um estudo publicado na revista “Nature” no ano passado determinou que o desenvolvimento de neurônios no hipocampo sofre desaceleração com o passar dos anos e é interrompido totalmente na vida adulta….”O nosso trabalho mostra pela primeira vez que a maneira em que o tecido é tratado e processado condiciona profundamente a visualização de novos neurônios no hipocampo humano”, explicou a pesquisadora à Agência Efe…. Porém, além de aplicar períodos de fixação muito controlados, o estudo identificou três métodos adicionais que permitem visualizar “otimamente” a presença de novos neurônios no giro dentado humano de um adulto, o que fez com que os pesquisadores pudessem conhecer, pela primeira vez, dados únicos sobre o amadurecimento dos novos neurônios criados nessa região do cérebro….

Pesquisa:

giro dentado humano – dentate gyrus (DG)

Image result for dentate gyrus

Você pode visualizar a correspondência entre o giro dentado e F2, e entre o Hipocampo e F1, na figura grosseira abaixo frita na selva amazônica como modelo do building block das galaxias baseado na formula da Matrix/DNA. Aqui, F2 e a região manchada de pontinhos representando a poeira estelar que envolve o vórtice nuclear, o qual evoluiu para a forma de hipocampo no cérebro humano. As esferas amarelas no meio da poeira representam os germes estelares, enquanto no giro dentado representam os novos neurônios.

Sistema-Elo Entre os Sistemas Naturais Não-Vivos e os Sistemas Biológicos

Sistema-Elo Entre os Sistemas Naturais Não-Vivos e os Sistemas Biológicos

Como e porque os ateus estão repetindo a mesma fé dos misticos religiosos

março 24th, 2019

” Faith is the great cop-out, the great excuse to evade the need to think and evaluate evidence” – Richard Dawkins

“Fé é a grande escapada, a maior desculpa para evitar a necessidade de refletir e avaliar evidencias”. Richard Dawkins, o papa dos ateus modernos, autor de livros como “O Gene Egoista”, ou ” A Ilusão de Deus”

Engracado que é justamente disso que tenho reclamado dos ateus como Dawkins nos últimos anos sempre que entrei em debate com eles – considerando-se que quanto aos místicos religiosos isto ja esta tão patenteado que não surpreende mais.

Tenho reunido mais de 2.000 evidencias a favor da Matrix/DNA Theory, e quando cito uma so, eles, ficam furiosos e a negam veementemente encerrando o assunto. Por exemplo, quando um ateu evolucionista repetia que evolucao se define pela mudanca das especies ao longo do tempo e isto ja foi estabelecido por Darwin e os mecanismos da evolucao que ele apontou, eu retruquei:

-” Sabe porque vocês evolucionistas estao tendo que repetir esta mesma ideia vezes e vezes em seguida e os criacionistas continuam a fazer a pergunta e refutar esta resposta vezes e vezes seguidas? Porque os evolucionistas vem sempre com a mesma errada resposta. Evolucao e um processo natural que conduz o mais simples a maior complexidade e ela não foi inventada ou criada do nada pela Terra e pelos seres vivos, ela comecou a 13,8 bilhoes de anos atras e desde entao ela tem vindo – ela mesma evoluindo sob a evolucao – se tornando mais complexa, porem, os princípios basicos dos mecanismos que conduziram a evolucao cosmologica, de atomos a galaxias, continuam na base dos mecanismos da evolucao que conduz os sistemas biologicos, ou seja, os seres vivos. Sem considerar aqueles mecanismos – muitos relacionados inclusive a termodinâmica dos sistemas, ao aspecto eletro-magnetico dos corpos, ao aspecto sistêmico do ciclo vital, etc., – vocês vao continuar com uma teoria da evolucao neodarwiniana cheia de falhas, e são estas falhas que os criacionistas se aproveitam para contestar a teoria.”

Quando o debatedor leu isso reagiu furioso e com xingamentos, dizendo que isso é pseudo-ciencia ( como se fosse possivel existir pseudo-ciencia. Ciencia e a observação e descricao de um fenomeno visivel e tocável seja na mesa do laboratório ou no campo. Não tem como fazer ciencia de um objeto invisível e não tocável. O outro aspecto da Ciencia e que ela faz experimentos com coisas reais e apresenta resultados reais, práticos, que funcionam se forem repetidos. não tem como falsear uma experiencia porque ela apresentaria resultados que depois, repetida a experiencia pelo metodo cientifico tal resultado jamais se repetiria. Entao uma coisa ou e’ Ciencia ou não e’, seria não Ciência. Falsa Ciencia e um conceito ilógico, irracional). escreveu mais umas duas linhas dizendo que atomos e estrelas são uma coisa totalmente diferente de bactérias e cangurus, que evolucao cosmologica nada tem a ver com evolucao biologica, e que eu seria um troll querendo atrapalhar a discussão e devia calar a boca… Claro que o equivocado modelo de atomo que eles tem teoricamente não se parece em nada com um modelo do circuito sistêmico na infra-estrutura de um corpo biologico, e se evolucao cosmologica nada tem a ver esta irremediavelmente explicito que evolucao biologica foi inventada do nada pela Terra, mesmo que outros planetas a tenham inventado tambem por si mesmos. E esta postura mental so pode ser produzida pela fé mística, não consigo ver outra explicacao racional. Com essa fé o debatedor jamais vai no meu website para conhecer e refletir nas mais de 2.000 evidencias e nas dezenas de previsões que ja foram confirmadas. Assim, os erros do passado continuam sendo os erros do presente.

Informativo debate sobre ciencia entre Matrix/DNA x criacionista x ateu

março 22nd, 2019

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xyhZcEY5PCQ

Argumentos para defender a ideia da natureza animal do corpo humano e os instintos para predador/presa

março 22nd, 2019

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Este texto foi escrito por alguém respondendo a uma afirmação:

  • “Humans hate disorder by nature. Even animals despise it. We are creatures of habit, routine, and order.”
  • ” Are you sure that disorder is not a part of human nature? Then why do children who are blank slates, show psychopathic behavior? They only show order, empathy and kindness when they are thought to them. Even then, its not because of the right motivations as being their nature to be good. It’s because of consequences. Fear. Like what you try to use when you threatened me earlier. It only becomes authentic when children has passed grew out of their egocentric mindset. Order only came due to being nurtured. Animals also are quite the model for disorder. They kill and eat each other to survive.”

Listas de argumentos cristaos e ateus envolvendo Ciencias.

março 22nd, 2019

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(Podem ser usados alguns argumentos daqui pela Matrix/DNA, quando ateus ou cristãos  vem a carga)

Argumentos cristãos:

Macroevolution proposes we were fish at one time, then an ape, and lastly a human. Is that demonstrable?

I’ve never seen a fish turn into a human nor do we have any record thats says that’s ever happened!

Is an infinitely dense point of singularity demonstrable? Why did the singularity expand perfectly to sustain a universe? Why did it defy innumerable odds by happening?

Why did life evolve to its current state?

Why is the human brain more complex than any computer known to man?

I thought we came from nothing?! How did that turn into all this? Why do i see order and design?

I thought it was by randomness we came? From random chance we began and from random chance we became an ordered universe?! That makes no sense at all and i wont believe it! Humans hate disorder by nature. Even animals despise it. We are creatures of habit, routine, and order.

The big bang is a huge leap of faith that order came from randomness. Besides, it doesn’t hold up because planets can spin in both directions which would break the law of angular momentum.

Anyways, Stop talking to me about demonstrable when atheistic theories fall flat on their face because practically nothing they teach is demonstrable, logical, or makes any real sense!!

Argumentos ateus:

It’s demonstrable by the fact that we have a common ancestor.

Trials and error and innumerable observation has been done ever since the theory of evolution an natural selection has been proposed.

Also, the origin of the universe is still a theory. Nobody knows, not even you people who believes.

As for how life evolving, it’s called natural selection. Each and every organism went through it just to survive to this day. It’s why the phrase “a successful organism is one that survives and reproduce.” Order and design came from countless millenia of trial and error. Again, natural selection.

It’s never confirmed or even mentioned that everything was made random. That’s quite a massive strawman there.

It’s the reason why science exists. It’s to know the matters that surrounds us. Science has no answer for everything because science is by definition, is an observation and study of the behavior and physical structure of the physical and natural world. It’s just that. Something that will try to uncover truths without any personal bias, emotions and false beliefs.

And are you sure that disorder is not a part of human nature? Then why do children who are blank slates, show psychopathic behavior? They only show order, empathy and kindness when they are thought to them. Even then, its not because of the right motivations as being their nature to be good. It’s because of consequences. Fear. Like what you try to use when you threatened me earlier. It only becomes authentic when children has passed grew out of their egocentric mindset. Order only came due to being nurtured. Animals also are quite the model for disorder. They kill and eat each other to survive. Again, Natural selection.

The big bang is a theory. A theory changes to better itself in explaining phenomenon without any semblance of bias. It evolves. It’s not a complete fact or law. But even so, it’s a different topic to the formation of a solar system. It can just be easily explained from strayed objects from space to change the behavior of a celestial object. There a so much thing going on like planets going astray or even stars dying or even born.

There is a reason why simulations have been carried out a lot. That’s one of the best things scientific technology has ever done. From obtaining oil deep into the earth’s surface to satellites being put into the exosphere to telescopes created to observe planets, stars and celestial wonders. They are all calculated through countless trials and errors an simulation. And what is a simulation? An observation of behaviors.

What has being an atheist have to do with scientific theory? Again, Science does not answer everything. But it tries to uncover the truth without any bias, be it from emotion or your personal belief.

You people however have yet to provide proof or evidence that god exists. So far, you’ve only shown nothing but sophistry and hubris. It’s all trash argument. So I will ask again. Can you give proof or evidence that god exist? If he does exist, can you provide an evidence that he did? Because if you can’t, then why would we waste our time believing in something that cannot stand on its own? You have the audacity to speak about sense when you cannot even prove god or him being the reason we exist. And even if you do, time an time again have you have been shown to leap logics because “god” an use circular arguments that completely answers nothing to prove your argument. You don’t even have demonstrable proof either so that’s quite the double standards there.

Como responder num debate entre diferentes visoes do mundo:

março 22nd, 2019

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Este texto foi escrito por um cristão em resposta a um ateu:

” I think where we have a disconnect is between proof and evidence. You’re willing to accept evidence when it seems to support an idea you want to be true..however that isn’t proof that it’s true.

I do the same thing. Both of us feel our evidence provides the proof.

However, when doubt can be asserted no matter the amount of evidence, it makes our back and forth a pointless exercise.

On these types of existential matters, people will believe what they want to believe.

We can’t both be right!

I can’t predict the future but I hope there’s a day where right and wrong is made clear. I’m looking forward to that day.

If I will lose, the prejudice will not be big than the big momment of knowing the real final thru. The thru and not my current opinion or belief is what matters to me.

Grande nova teoria sobre origem da vida de Dr. Eric Smith – Mais próxima da Matrix/DNA

março 21st, 2019

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(Este video tem que ser revisto frase por frases e analizadas pelas Matrix/DNA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cwvj0XBKlE

Este pesquisador e` baseado em geoquimica, bioquinica e complexidade dos sistemas.

Dr Eric goal is to understand origin and nature of the living statethrough the many windows that science provides the physical geochemical biochemical ecological and evolutionary
Matrix/DNA: Buscar entender e conhecer o estado da Natureza envolvendo o planeta Terra momentos antes das origens da vida… esta é a grande chave para desvendar o mistério. Pois nada de sobrenatural ou de fora desta galaxia veio influenciar as origens da vida, segundo a minha premissa básica. Não é impossível que algo de outras dimensões (diferentes faixas da onda de luz universal, com matéria em diferentes estado vibracionais, etc.), tenha influenciado aquele evento, por isso nunca vamos fechar a mente transformando nossa visão do mundo numa radical ideologia. Mas se houve tais interferências seria para nossa desgraça intelectual, pois sua certeza nos obrigaria a imediatamente pendurar as chuteiras da Ciência e da Filosofia Naturalista ( o método que tenho aplicado),  que são os dois únicos métodos que temos para buscar a solução do significado da nossa existência. Alem disso, penso que como humanos apenas podemos nos limitar ao nosso mundo sensorial real, é ele que nos interessa agora porque ele determina a qualidade da nossa existência, e temos que entende-lo como “natural”, para dai entender-mos que a Natureza se moveu, mudou, transformou seus ingredientes aqui e continua se movendo, e um dos produtos deste movimento da Natureza esta’ dentro do cérebro humano, algo não muito bem definido e ao qual denominamos “Razão”, a qual sintetiza em si as regras, as leis, processos e mecanismos que tem composto este movimento total da parcela da Natureza envolvendo os eventos nas origens da vida e o processo evolucionário desta historia.
Portanto, o humano se aproximara o mais possível da solução verdadeira que explica as origens da vida e a evolução quanto mais manter essa Razão na sua forma natural, mantendo-a pura como uma quinta força da Natureza que é a entidade que sempre emerge da mistura e interações entre todas as partes e forças de um sistema. Para manter esta Razão pura e nuamente, brutal quando estiver instalado a dominância  do caos e ordenada quando se instala a ordem, pristinamente natural, é preciso um gigantesco esforço para policia-la, mantendo-se constantemente vigilante contra as invasões de outra propriedade não inteligível do cérebro que é a imaginação, e da outra propriedade do cérebro que são os instintos herdados do passado, inclusive dos instintos vindo das leis físico-termodinâmicas do estado do mundo muito antes dos momentos das origens da vida, e dos instintos mais recentes vindo de predadores ou presas. Pois estes instintos nos manteriam emburrecidos inabilitando-nos a nos posicionar no estado da Natureza atual com sua atual complexidade, para entender esta complexidade com a forma da Razão complexa que ela exige.
Um dos métodos eficientes para manter a Razão pura é, sempre que num exercício de tentativa de conectar os fatos e eventos naturais para obter o grande quadro final – aquele que de fato mostraria como foi as origens da vida – ir testando os quadros menores que vão surgindo das conexões de poucos dados. Este teste é feito buscando-se parâmetros – outras ocorrências e eventos conhecidos e comprovadamente reais – que estejam ocorrendo aqui e agora, seja observado dentro ou fora do nosso sistema solar. Senão encontrar-mos nenhum parâmetro, devemos nos esforçar ao máximo buscando todas as outras alternativas visualizadas de conexões, e apenas se outra não encontrar também o parâmetro, devemos eleger a mais indicada nunca se esquecendo dela, deste chute no escuro, embutindo no nosso quadro um elemento ou evento nunca observado em nenhuma situação real. Um destes chutes no escuro da ciência acadêmica moderna é toda a teoria e modelos sobre os buracos negros. Onde, quando, foi observado ao menos algo similar a estes hipotéticos objetos que estariam no lugar do objeto real que esta’ oculto nos nucleos das glaxias? Nao existe. Manter a razão a mais natural possível é o mandamento máximo nas investigações dos desconhecidos nesta Natureza.
Quando o Dr.Eric busca os mistérios nas origens da vida através do método de conhecer ou reconstituir o estado do mundo daquela época, através das disciplinas ” physical geochemical biochemical ecological and evolutionary”, ele esta’ no caminho mais certo que os biólogos fazendo teorias a partir da pesquisa do DNA apenas, esta’ a meio-caminho mais certo que os químicos buscando as mesmas explicações limitados ‘a química. Mas isto não é tudo, assim ele não vai nunca completar a sua busca com uma resposta final. Seria possível a um alienígena feito de ferro e não-biológico conhecer as explicações das origens de um humano na forma adulta se ele apenas souber que a forma adulta veio da forma adolescente e ele tentar reconstituir mentalmente a forma adolescente? Não porque a forma adolescente não foi o estado do mundo que deu origens a forma adulta, esta veio de antes, muito antes, desde as formas de criança, de feto, e antes ainda, dos pais, etc. Então o que essas disciplinas ajudam o Dr. Eric a remontar é a forma de adolescente do mundo. Ele terá que incluir nessas disciplinas todo o vasto campo da astronomia e da física mais elementar, como a atômica, a das partículas e outros elementos como a luz, etc., ou seja, remontar os estados do mundo em passados anteriores aos momentos das origens da vida. Pois a vida não teve, na realidade uma origem abrupta, como um evento ao acaso e vindo de forças fora da longa cadeia de causas e efeitos que começou com o Big Bang e quiça, antes dele. As palavras “vida” e “origens”, são palavras que geram conceitos equivocados, principalmente quando vem juntas,  um nome muito perigoso e desviador de foco da atenção, ao separar o que aconteceu depois dos 3,5 bilhões de anos na Terra dos 10 bilhões de anos do Cosmos. A vida nada mais é que um estado da Natureza uma nova forma produzida pela transformação evolucionaria de um sistema universal,  que emerge do processo natural universal da “transformação”, onde o bólido de leis e elementos e forças que vem na avalanche das causas e efeitos faz ficar a tona e em proeminência novos compostos de seus elementos que nela estavam inseridos desde o inicio da avalancha. Assim como no jovem que amadurece surgem novidades como a barba, o bigode, a maturação sexual, etc., os quais já tinham suas informações inseridas no corpo antes da forma de jovem, desde suas origens.
Portanto o Dr. Eric esta’ a um passo atras da Matrix/DNA, a qual foi buscar a Historia Natural desde o Big Bang para chegar neste futuro sugerindo o modelo teórico de como estava o estado do mundo aqui nestas regiões na época das origens das vida. Porem, ao proceder assim dentro de um horizonte mais limitado, o Dr.Eric teve mais tempo para esmiuçar melhor os maiores detalhes daqueles momentos, e adicionando-se a isso que suas condições de pesquisas mais favorecidas pelos recursos da ciência oficial torna-se claro que seu modelo deva conter muitos elementos que o da Matrix/DNA desconhece. Então sugere a Razão que os elementos conhecidos por um sejam adicionados e misturados com os elementos conhecidos por outro, para dai se extrair um quadro ainda mais fidedigno. E é isto que estamos tentando fazer ao esmiuçar a obra do Dr. Eric.
additionally
he remains interested in the connections
or correspondences between energy
information and computation most of us
think about life as being something
created from other living things but
much of Eric’s work focuses on the time
before biology when life on Earth emerge
from geophysical and chemical processes
the subject of tonight’s talk is based
on material from his upcoming book
co-written by the legendary biologist
Harold Morel wits which is entitled the
emergence of the fourth geosphere to be
published in 2016 by Cambridge
University Press
his work disrupts Francis Crick’s notion
that life was a happy accident
indeed the material has consequences for
the way we think about the relationship
of the individual to ecology the big
picture of orange and of life shows that
ecosystems not individuals are carrying
some of the most fundamental patterns of
life furthermore the work leads us to
understand that the nature of living
State is different from the nature of
individuality and that we have been
wrongly conflating the two in our
understanding of biology
therefore we should strive to achieve a
more ecology centered biology to help us
guide our life in a more sustainable way
within the biosphere finally both his
upcoming book and tonight’s talk will
challenge us to rethink
what is the nature of life without
further ado let’s welcome Eric Smith
thank you so thank you Jerry and good
evening everybody welcome you might
think at the least that the problem of
the origin of life how did life appear
on an earth that previously had not had
life is mostly a history problem what
happened and when and where did it
happen you could go a little bit beyond
that and you might think of it as a
problem of cause how did things happen
and why the argument that I want to make
tonight is that we actually need to go
further than that the things that we’ve
learned about the sort of technical
problems of when where and how have
caused us to realize that the nature of
life is different from a lot of the
patterns that we’ve traditionally used
to think about it now the reason the
origin of life problem is hard is that
we do something in science that we also
do in everyday life we put a big gap
between the living things and the
nonliving things it’s very difficult to
see across that gap how something like
life could have come from something that
was not alive so when we think about
life we often think about it in these
terms
life is made of individuals they have
agency maybe they have purpose or
intentions that gives the biosphere
direction even if the direction didn’t
come from the individuals it comes from
evolution life is energetic its complex
and it’s endlessly fascinating compare
that to rocks what do rocks do they just
sit there sometimes for billions of
years so what I want to argue to you
tonight is that the conceptual gap
between the nonliving world and living
world is not real or it’s not where we
have tried to place it in the past the
nonliving world is very active
it’s richly structured in its activity
and the biosphere from the beginning all
the way to the present is embedded in
detail in the structure of that chemical
activity of the rest of the planet
we haven’t recognized the connections
because our ways of looking have been
too small or they’ve been too short-term
they’ve been on the scale of a human
life or maybe we’ve looked in the wrong
places but particularly in the last 30
years things that we’ve learned in a
variety of different disciplines are
changing the way we ask those questions
and those are the things that cause us
to reevaluate what we think the nature
of life is and what we’re trying to
explain so tonight I want to cover four
points first of all to understand the
nature of life in the origin of life you
have to understand its planetary context
and that context is what I will call a
great arc of disequilibrium on the scale
of the whole planet now even though that
disequilibrium or stress runs through
all of the systems on the planet we can
break it apart and we can make it
comprehensible by doing something that
geologists have done for more than a
century we can divide the planet into
geosphere z– which are separate domains
of states of matter and kinds of
chemistry what we’re looking for in the
nature of life is actually at the level
of the biosphere as a whole not at the
level of its components of species or
organisms or sub organismal components
the conclusion that I want to leave us
with at the end of the night is that the
biosphere is the fourth geosphere we
should understand it as a planetary
subsystem and we should understand the
emergence of life as a stage in
planetary maturation akin to the stages
that cause the other geo spheres to be
separated from each other so in
classical geology a lifeless planet can
have three geo spheres the lithosphere
from the word for rock is the solid bulk
on earth this is almost all of the
matter in the mass
of the planet the state of matter is
solid and the chemistry characteristic
of the delay of the lithosphere is the
chemistry of minerals and their changes
second geosphere is the hydrosphere this
is all of the watery domains water
chemistry is very special it’s very
restrictive and as we’ve known forever
water chemistry is fundamental to the
nature of life and it’s in part impart
important because of all the things you
can’t do in water that you have to be
distinctive the life does the third
nonliving geosphere is the atmosphere
this is the gas phase because it’s cool
and because it’s at low density there
are certain kinds of chemistry that are
possible in the atmosphere that are not
possible other places
now the chemistry of the atmosphere is
not actually very much like the
chemistry of life but it turns out that
it’s really important to the great arc
of planetary disequilibrium that will be
central to our story and the fourth is
the biosphere a lifeless planet will
always have a lithosphere if it has
enough volatile zazz they’re called the
liquids and gases it can also have hydro
spheres or atmospheres I want to look at
the earth as it is and everything that
causes it to be different from a planet
that only had the three lifeless geo
seers and all of that difference is what
I mean by the biosphere so it is
organisms but not only organisms it’s
all of their ecological relations it’s
their history and it’s all the changes
that they have collectively brought
about in the rest of the planet
throughout its history so it’s in the
some rather than in the components that
we look for the nature of the living
State so I’ve said that there’s not a
gap that separates life conceptually
from the rest of the earth but certainly
the biosphere is different from the
nonliving geo spheres it’s different in
many ways but if we had to choose one
that’s most important here’s the one I
would argue it is for the other geo
spheres the lithosphere hydrosphere and
atmosphere
we can understand most of them in terms
of their structure for the biosphere you
can only really understand it as an
organized state of activity in order to
create an organized state of activity
that goes beyond just structure you have
to be in a circumstance that physicists
call far from equilibrium and I’ll
explain to you in a minute what that
means the important thing is that the
disequilibrium we need to understand
life are not something local they’re not
local in space and they’re not local in
chemistry they actually are built up on
the scale of the whole planet so to give
you a flavor for what is meant by near
equilibrium or far from equilibrium I’ll
use something’s a little of an analogy
but it’s an analogy that’s
mathematically faithful near equilibrium
is like the ripples on a pond there may
be activity that’s caused by
disturbances but most of what there is
to understand can be understood from the
structure of the flat surface before you
start this is far from equilibrium think
of the biosphere as surfing on a
continuously renewed wave of energy flow
that energy flow is needed to keep it up
where it is it’s needed to keep it
organized now it’s been understood
forever that life requires a flow of
energy to maintain itself but to say
that something is required doesn’t say
that that’s necessarily possible it only
tells you what’s impossible tonight I
want to argue for something stronger I
want to argue that the energy flows on
earth brought the biosphere into
existence it’s as if the wave had
created the surfer so traditionally when
we come at the problem of the origin of
life from the habits of biology we ask
where is the surfer and what is the
surfer like what I want to argue with
here is that the right question should
be where is the wave so the story of
disequilibrium that makes sense of the
origin of life doesn’t start on the
planet it actually starts in the
formation of the solar system now when
we look at the Sun the part we see is
the photosphere photosphere is
relatively cool it’s only about 6,000
degrees Celsius
which is about the same temperature as
the core of the earth and it looks
relatively smooth and flat like you see
here occasional sunspots but if you were
to look at the Sun in the x-ray with a
movie you’d find a boiling cauldron of
magnetic fluid because the Sun produces
heat and the heat needs to convict and
because it’s electrically conductive you
get loops of magnetism that boil up from
the interior and WIPP plasma into the
outer layers of the atmosphere this
action can cause the middle atmosphere
of the Sun called the chromosphere to go
up to a hundred thousand degrees or more
and it can elevate the corona to a
million degrees or more so plasma at a
hundred thousand degrees emits extreme
ultraviolet radiation and at a million
degrees or more it emits x-rays so if
you could look at the Sun with a picture
in the extreme UV in the x-ray this is
actually what you would find the
activity of the star like this is due to
convection and the conductivity of the
plasma but also to the rotation because
this is a Coriolis effect the same as
hurricanes and when stars are young when
they’re born they rotate much faster and
they spin down over time so when the Sun
was young all of this activity was
actually more vigorous and more violent
than it is today now that kind of hard
radiation shapes planetary atmospheres
and in particular it drives them far out
of equilibrium from the planet that they
surround so in particular ultraviolet
and above will break water water is the
h2o molecule where the HS are white and
the O is red and it will separate the
hydrogen from the oxygen hydrogen is a
very light element and so anything will
cause it to escape and the result is
that you leave the oxygen behind this is
actually a satellite photo of the earth
taken with a filter for the emission
lines that see hydrogen and what you can
see is that our planet is surrounded by
a halo of hydrogen it’s continually
escaping from it that
to have major consequences because the
rates of hydrogen loss that a star like
our Sun produces will remove a volume of
water comparable to the Earth’s ocean in
about a billion years so if you were
Venus which is about our size but closer
to the Sun a little bit warmer or if you
were Mars which is smaller and has a
weaker gravity to hold elements you
would have wound up in the condition
that they’re in today with no surface
water oxygen left behind that turns the
dry surface a rusty red in about four
and a half billion years the earth may
be in this condition depending on how
much water is on the inside which is
something we don’t know but for the time
being the earth is a very unusual planet
in the solar system and possibly more
widely than that but why does any of
this matter to the origin of life to
answer that you need to know a little
bit of chemistry but all you need to
know is on this one slide and it’s
intuitive I promise in the periodic
table of the elements we have many
different kinds of animals some of the
elements have a stronger what’s called
affinity for electrons than others and
in particular important to our story
iron is very ready to give electrons
away to many other elements giving
electrons away to something is called
reducing that because electrons Haggen
have a negative charge at the opposite
end oxygen is very greedy –nt will
steal electrons from many elements and
so you can see the transfer of electrons
from iron to oxygen in the Suites of
minerals in the world iron metal which
mostly doesn’t exist at the surface has
all of its electrons and they’re loosely
bound so they make a kind of a liquid
and that’s why iron is silvery and shiny
and reflects light if you bring in a
little bit of oxygen enough that there’s
one oxygen atom per iron atom it will
transfer two electrons to the oxygen and
we note that with a plus two on the iron
and a minus two on the oxygen and you
get this dull silvery mineral called
this site which is no longer shiny
because the free electrons are gone a
little bit more so that you’re in a mix
between giving two and giving three
electrons away
and you have magnetite which is black
this is what the original compasses were
made of and if you give yet more you get
this rusty red mineral called hematite
which is one of the elements of rust now
as we all know rust happens and the
spontaneity of this electron-donating
process is a source of chemical energy
if you look at that at a planetary scale
you realize that what happens is that
hydrogen escape is turning our whole
planet into a giant battery because this
is how batteries work you take two
different elements one of which gives
electrons and one of which takes them
and you force the electrons to flow
through something so that you can
harness the work in the earth in the
interior region known as the mantle most
of the iron is in this +2 state but near
the surface it gets pulled to the +3
state by the oxygen that’s continually
made available as we lose water to
hydrogen escape now on a quiet earth
that battery would run down because even
though you originally had oxygen to
donate electrons at the surface that
would basically weather over the same
way you get a layer of oxide on an
aluminum windowsill the only thing that
allows the battery to be continually
refreshed is that new material is
delivered to the surface of the earth at
the same time as hydrogen is continually
scoured away out of the atmosphere but
that redelivery
brings a second kind of disequilibrium
into the picture to understand the
context for life so if you could look at
a cross-section of the earth on hundred
million year timescales
so this is where human life is too short
to see you would actually see cool
material being brought down from the
surface and you can barely see in this
picture I apologize for the colors the
yellow heat from the core being boiled
up so the interior plastic rock of the
mantle is constantly in convective
turnover driven by this need to release
heat if at the same time you could see
the chemical composition of the rock you
would find that the oxidized exhausted
crust on the surface is being pulled
down and remixed into the mantle while
the electron giving iron mature
the interior is allowed to come to the
surface and make new crust so when you
put all these processes together this is
the picture you get of the big earth
convection continually refreshes the
surface rock at the same time as the
solar radiation pulls the hydrogen away
the important thing is that the new
crust is not created uniformly
everywhere it’s created in concentrated
centers which are called spreading
centers or mid-ocean ridges beneath the
ocean bottom the process of convection
causes what are called plate tectonics
the movement of the major plates around
where they subduct they create
earthquakes and volcanoes which deliver
other concentrated new rock to the
surface and when there are continents
riding around on them they cause
continental drift so this is a map of
the bottom of the ocean showing its age
the entire bottom of the ocean gets
replaced about once every 250 million
years as the continents go back and
forth opening and closing in a cycle the
mid-ocean ridges are these red regions
of newly created crust in the Centers of
all of the world’s oceans and then the
blue regions are the old crust that’s
diving back into the mantle as they do
under Tokyo where I’m living now the
sites where new crust is created are
themselves very interesting because
you’re taking rock that’s miles thick
and you’re twisting it and separating it
and pulling it so they’re filled with
cracks and pores and in this domain
seawater invades and it gets chemically
altered by the rock the invasion sites
and then the remix encoder comes back up
are the places where a battery that
accumulates over the entire planetary
surface in bulk
gets concentrated into these narrow
ranges so this map shows you the same
spreading centers on little red dots are
the places where geologists have mapped
out regions of active rock water
interaction this is a tiny subset of the
ones that are believed to exist but
these now constitute
the evidence we have about where the
Earth’s battery mostly flows and if you
look at the electron transfer if you do
a calculation from the interior to the
atmosphere its concentrated at these
little release points right around here
so this is the importance of this is
that this is where stress piles up in
the world even though it’s accumulated
diffusely
so up to this point we’ve closed half
the gap hopefully I have convinced you
that rocks don’t just sit there that the
earth is chemically active and that it’s
organized but before the 1970s even
knowing all of this and much of this was
understood roughly people still would
not have been able to make a connection
to the origin of life because life still
seemed so different what I want to show
you next is that’s because up until
about the 1970s we thought we understood
the nature of life and our view of life
was basically entirely upside down
what’s important about the last 50 years
is that we’ve learned about an entire
new part of the biosphere that we didn’t
understand and we’ve learned that it’s
that other part not us
that gives the clues about where life
came from and the real foundations of
its nature
so understandably for most of history
when we think about the nature of life
we think about things that are big
enough to see because we didn’t have
microscopes and that means the plants
and the animals in the fungi but what
these all have in common is that
ultimately they’re all fed by this green
forest here they all live off of the
energy from sunlight and that’s a
problem because capturing sunlight is
the most complicated thing living
systems do and so we were never able to
surmount that chicken egg problem how
would you ever get up to something as
complicated as the machinery that
harnesses sunlight if you needed the
sunlight energy to build that machinery
in the first place but in 1977 Jack
Corliss Richard von Hudson and Robert
Ballard led an expedition to the
Galapagos rift one of our spreading
centers with the deep submersible Alvin
which at that time was new they were
drawn there because there had been
measurements of the seawater overlying
that were anomalously warm and so they
suspect that there were rock water
interactions taking place but they were
completely unprepared for what they
would see both about the geology and
about the life hosted there immediately
after those discoveries there were new
hypotheses about how life had originated
that are substantively much like what is
mostly believed today but together with
other changes that were going on around
the same time in microbiology and
molecular biology they completely
changed our understanding of how the
biosphere is organized on what was its
history so what Alvin saw the first
discovery was these thundering plumes of
sulfide and heavy metal rich water
coming up from the deep where they mix
with cool seawater they precipitate
these enormous chimneys that can be 45
or 60 feet tall this water would poison
us immediately because of the metals and
the sulfide that it’s full of the
temperature differences are extreme 350
degrees versus four degrees makes a
mirror under this flange but the most
amazing thing was the animal colonies
that live around here the water would
poison us but it’s the source of energy
for entire ecosystems like these tube
worms and the shrimp that live around
them now the red color you see here even
though it looks like flowers has nothing
to do with pigments because there’s no
light down here that’s hemoglobin these
are the worms lung that stick out into
the water to perform gas exchange but
the most important thing of all about
these ecosystems is that the worms don’t
build life all of the life is built by
bacteria the worms gather gases that the
bacteria used to build their biomass in
these shimmering zones of mixing that
was a whole parallel biosphere that was
not anticipated but the Alvin expedition
did more than show us that there’s more
diversity in the world than we realized
together with the other discoveries it
forced us to reconsider what it is that
determines living form there is a role
for evolution in this but I’ll come back
to evolution second because it’s
actually not our first story the first
story is that some of the patterns of
life are written into the rules of
chemistry and the planetary energy flows
before there’s ever material for
evolution to act on the important
conclusion in this will not only be new
insights about organisms but also a new
way to understand the ecosystems that
makes them more fundamental than
organisms so let me talk about typology
suppose we had to play a game of 20
questions where I had to learn as much
about some organism as possible in the
fewest number of questions what should
those questions be turns out they would
not first be about its history my choice
of the first two would be these I would
first ask where does it get its energy
does it get its energy from molecules
that give electrons the way hydrogen
does or from molecules that take
electrons the way oxygen does then
second I would ask how much do I learn
if I only see the organism is the
organism metabolically complete does it
feed itself which is the condition
called Auto trophy or is the organism in
complete so that it depends on an
ecosystem to provide it the condition
called heterotroph II or being fed from
somebody else because if it’s incomplete
then even if I study that metabolism I
haven’t understood what is sufficient to
make life so the first thing you realize
is that everything we use to think about
is down in this one lower right corner
here so they are not the norm the other
thing you realize is that on this side
they’re all green or they eat something
green or something that eats something
green so these are the complicated guys
and they were the ones we were trying to
understand from these are the ones that
were discovered in the deep subsurface
and the bottoms of the oceans now if we
look at the evolutionary view and we
reconstruct history we realize that it’s
telling us the same story of course
people and most of the things people
know exists at a little tiny tip of this
tree here and in fact anything that has
more than one cell lives on these few
branches that have slightly thickened
lines everything else in the world is
you know cells and before I don’t know
600 million years ago that was all there
was in the world more than that these
are the only complex single-celled
organisms the cells that have the
simpler form of bacteria make up the
blue and red branches that are the
substance of the Tree of Life now the
remarkable thing is as we have
reconstructed the properties of these
deep branches from the way their
ancestors are left on the tips here we
find that the bacteria that live without
oxygen are the good models for the route
here and also many of them are
heat-loving
so the bacteria that were discovered by
the Alvin expedition are not some
special branch that’s adapted to an
extreme environment they are the
foundation we are the special branch
that occurred much later but of course
everything here I was talking about
organisms because for organisms you can
draw trees if we had talked instead
about ecosystems I could have done even
better because I could have answered an
enormous amount with only
one question where do they get their
energy because if we draw the boundaries
big enough every ecosystem is
self-provisioning we don’t live off of
organic molecules from space anymore if
we ever did so everything that is needed
in an ecosystem is made by somebody in
the ecosystem there the major division
is between the ones that live from
electron donors without oxygen and those
that are powered ultimately by light on
the surface but we learn something more
kind of like Tolstoy’s happy families
are all alike and the unhappy ones are
unhappy in their own way the reductive
ecosystems are actually all essentially
alike they may not be the same at the
level of organisms but at the ecosystem
level they’re doing the same thing
moreover the process of building up
biomass the way these bacteria that
oxidize iron and leave rust as their
waste product do is essentially also
present in here but it’s wrapped in an
energy suit where sunlight provides them
what they’re no longer getting from the
Earth’s battery so these are actually
the fundamental and the deep so that
leads us to a different view of the
biosphere ecosystems are not merely
communities they’re entities in their
own right the reason this matters for
the origin of life is threefold
first the kinds of ecosystems reductive
or oxidative are not primarily
determined by genetics or history
they’re primarily determined by
metabolism second the similarity of
metabolisms is evident or the
universality of metabolism can be seen
at the ecosystem level not necessarily
at the organism level so organisms cut
up a puzzle in different ways but the
picture on the ecological puzzle is
always the same picture here’s the one
that I need to argue to get you to
accept it was not organisms that were
the bridge from geochemistry into life
it was ecosystems the division of
becoming special organisms came later so
now I want to make the argument for
plausibility for that
to understand that argument though we
need to look more at metabolism because
metabolism is the special property and
there are clues in the structure and the
energetics of metabolism that are as
remarkable as anything I’ve showed you
in the world of organisms now usually if
you look at metabolism you of course
instantly have a heart attack and that’s
because we study metabolism from the
level of human physiology and medicine
it’s kind of like taking a beautiful
telescope and looking through the wrong
end and saying it all seems so far away
so this is what a typical metabolic map
looks like in one of the major databases
but even in this chaos your eye is drawn
to the order at the center of this
circle what I want to show you is that
this circle is in fact the knot that
ties the whole thing together it does in
the entire biosphere all living things
and apparently has throughout all of
history so this is what the core looks
like a little bit closer it’s called the
citric acid cycle it’s a cycle of 11
simple molecules the colored dots here
are carbons I don’t label them the
smallest has only two carbons you go
around to as many as six carbons that’s
citric acid we were all well some of us
were taught in high school biology that
this cycle is important it’s called the
Krebs cycle we were told we need it to
get energy from fats and oils so that we
can live that’s why it’s important to us
but we’re late and we’re backward the
reason the citric acid cycle is
important to everything and this is
stunning
all molecules that you use to make the
entire biosphere originate in one of
four or five compounds in this cycle all
the diversity that you see around you
comes later but the building is all done
from these now I show them to us in the
form of foods because we are not
ecologically complete so we know most of
them in terms of the foods we need to
eat to live that some plant or bacterium
needs to make so this will to come to
carbon compound this is vinegar and it’s
the starting point through which all of
the oils and fats are made the three
carbon compound here makes all of the
sugars which are structural as well as
energy molecules this one here
makes the special vitamins that bind
metals and that’s why they have bright
colors so chlorophyll and heme there are
four different ones that make amino
acids that are part of proteins and then
from some of the amino acids we also
make the nucleic acids RNA and DNA so
that’s how the major classes of
molecules come off of this small simple
core so the first apparent problem with
obtaining an origin of life the problem
of complexity now doesn’t seem so bad
but that’s not the only problem we have
to address there’s a classic view of
life as a struggle for existence the
term was coined by the victorian
Reverend Thomas Malthus who was worried
about population and famines and Wars
and this was a term that was adopted
also by Darwin and was fundamental to
why natural selection can work you over
produce and then you call the same
language permeates the sciences we
talked about capturing resources or
harnessing sunlight energy so the
intuition is that things fall apart and
that you’re in the Sisyphean task of
building up against the forces of decay
and in the oxygenic world that’s right
if I take organic carbon I can put it in
a furnace and it will burn and it will
go back to carbon dioxide which is where
it started from but in the world of
vents the rules are different my
colleague and friend Everett Jacques has
probably put this best that instead of
no such thing as a free lunch or a
struggle for existence the vent world is
a free lunch you’re paid to eat I’ll
show you how what I’ve done here is
taken the citric acid cycle compounds
they’re the 11 different dots for a
couple of them I’ve drawn the molecules
just so you can see where they go and on
this axis I’ve showed how many h2 how
many electrons we add per carbon to
build the molecule so the sugars are two
h2s per carbon the oils are three and
then on this axis I’ve shown the energy
that’s used to make the molecule
starting from hydrogen and co2 because
hydrogen is what the vent world provides
and actually what you see is this is a
downhill run all the way to methane
at ch4 that’s our greenhouse gas so in
the vent world you are not building up
complexity as a struggle against the
release of energy you’re building up
complexity because that’s the path of
least resistance to release energy now
the reason that matters to the citric
acid cycle I showed you before is that
that’s what drags the cycle around you
can think of it as an old-fashioned
waterwheel where as the water flows over
it pulls the cycle around this is the
same picture I’m not showing you the
other clutter the hydrogen’s and oxygens
but I show you the same molecules and
the redder a carbon atom is coloured the
more oxygens it has bound to it the
bluer it’s coloured the more hydrogen’s
it has bound so you’re sliding down the
hill as more of your atoms become blue
and fewer of them red this is the citric
acid cycle in the same picture where I’m
showing you each of the eleven molecules
with only the carbons colored and what
you can see the cycle goes in this
counterclockwise direction in the vent
world we run it backward the wrong way
where it makes no sense but in the vent
world red carbon that’s carbon dioxide
comes in and as it goes around it gets
moved toward the interior of the
molecule and electrons get added so that
process of adding electrons and using
the available free energy drags the
cycle around in the directions that the
organisms use and then that becomes the
starting material out of which they
build the rest of biomass I’ll come back
and show you this in a little bit later
in a slightly different form so for now
the way the earth provides a battery and
the way metabolism use it shows the
essential continuity between
geochemistry and biochemistry that by
itself would not be enough to judge
whether the presence of life on Earth is
surprising or inevitable to answer that
question we need to do something more
and that’s what requires that we
reconsider what we think the living
state is and wait through what the right
kind of formal
for it is I want to argue that the way
to understand the way that makes sense
of the fact that life emerged on a
lifeless earth and that it has persisted
for almost four billion years since is
the concept of breakdown or failure so
remember that we’re trying to understand
a pattern of motion breakdown creates
patterns of motion at the same time as
it destroys certain patterns of
structure so things don’t only fall
apart
sometimes the events become ordered even
as the structures are broken and so we
have the concept that the origin of life
could be a kind of collapse and once you
have a collapse the idea that when
pushed hard enough
anything will give that brings with it
the notion of necessity because in the
world of breakdowns the things that
persist are only the things that were
the favorite state or the necessary
state to begin with now this is not an
exotic idea it turns out that it’s
around us all the time the main thing
you need in order to understand it is
the idea of an energy flow channel there
are lots of energy flow channels in the
natural world lightning is one we create
a plasma that’s very very very different
from the surrounding dry air but it
allows electricity to flow we create all
this organization of wall storms in a
cyclone because that transports heat
from the warm oceans to the upper
atmosphere and this is not the
disordered pattern of just thunderstorms
or uniformly mixed air so these things
are well understood in the physical
sciences already the thing that’s
important to create a channel and the
reason not all things form channels is
that there needs to be feedback because
in all of these systems the initial
stress is diffuse the clouds have a
charge spread out over a great distance
where the oceans are warm over an
enormous volume but the ice storms
constant
only in one area because that moves
things more so I’ll illustrate for you
dynamically with the simplest of all
channels which is just the propagation
of a fracture if you could see a
fracture propagating at the atomic scale
you would see that it’s a self-similar
repeating sequence of events as bond
after bond breaks the reason this is
striking is that in the original crystal
there’s plenty of energy in the crystal
as a whole to break the bonds but the
energy is too diffuse and so by itself
it can’t concentrate to rupture a bond
the thing that causes the fracture to
propagate in an orderly way instead of
happening at random everywhere is that
the stress field in the surround it
deforms pulls the stress from the bulk
back down to atomic diameters and
concentrates it this is what
hydrothermal vents are doing for the
earth battery because the battery is
accumulating over the entire atmosphere
and interior but it’s being focused at
the regions where rock contacts water
and the regions where the altered water
remixes with seawater now I want to show
you that this is actually what the
citric acid cycle does within chemistry
it performs a second kind of
concentration so as the molecule goes
around it pulls in carbon and then here
it splits and both parts go back into
the cycle so where you had one you now
have two that’s the mathematics of
compound interest and so you can
exponentially grow and you concentrate
material within the cycle also like
compound interest on an endowment you
can pull molecules off of this to make
your major classes of biological matter
but the material in the cycle is still
available to serve as a kind of flypaper
that continues to pull carbon in over
and over again so this is the second
concentration now the thing this leads
to an important way of thinking about
the nature of life you could imagine
that the optimization of this cycle was
something carried out by evolution later
but I think there’s actually a better
way to view it this cycle is self
amplifying it works from the
environmental sources of carbon
it works from the Earth’s sources of
electrons and everything in the
biosphere is made from it the biosphere
is what you can make if these are the
compounds you have and so this is why it
becomes the core that organizes the
whole rest of metabolism so does this
give us a complete theory of origins not
nearly there’s a lot of work to be done
there are many problems to be solved and
maybe many generations maybe centuries
of work before we have a satisfactory
theory the way we have a theory of
matter but it fundamentally changes the
way we ask questions when Darwin was
trying to understand the origin of the
world even though he was a consummate
ecologist he emphasized organisms
because that was where he could say
something concrete about the action
selection his problem was to understand
the patterns of relation the fact that
some things are more similar to each
other than they are to others and that
was what led him to the importance of
the tree of descent the idea that the
degree of similarity could be understood
in terms of how long ago you had a
common ancestor but organisms as we said
are very complicated and the tree of
descent doesn’t seem to do a very good
job of explaining how you ever arrived
at that level of complexity this is the
point that Jerry raised in the
introduction that what organisms are is
both part of the living biosphere but
they’re also individual and those are
two different things today we would
separate the problems and I would say we
asked the same question the following
way we recognize that being an organism
or being a virus or being a gene or
being a cell in an organism is just one
of many kinds of individuality and these
forms of individuality almost condense
like do from a kind of a background of
chemical regularity and that regularity
is being carried by the ecosystem but
like Dew which doesn’t condense
everywhere the forms of individuality
condense where they have paths of least
resistance laid down that make it easy
and
so the important point about all of the
concentrating mechanisms in organic
chemistry the cycles and metabolism the
Earth’s battery these define the pads of
least resistance so we can come finally
back to the question of chance and
necessity there are two sort of classic
pronouncements each made by a major and
truly great scientist that reflect
exactly opposite points of view Jacques
Monod worked on bacterial regulation and
was one of the discoverers of how this
works his view from all of the
complexity of genetics and genomics was
that life could be understood in terms
of scientific principles but there was
no hope of predicting he envisioned the
trajectory of the biosphere through
history as a kind of a random walk where
even the major steps could not have been
foreseen Christian de Duve took exactly
the opposite point of view in a way
that’s very subtle and I think it’s
missed by many people to have recognized
of course that the Assembly of a modern
cell would only be possible with
selection because there are so many
choices they have to be selected at each
range but he went on to say something
more delicate he said even the problem
of producing the choices that selection
can act on is so complicated it’s very
difficult to understand how that could
happen in a process where everything is
equally probable and this was what led
him to propose that the success of the
evolutionary game as he puts it was
written into the fabric of the universe
what I’ve wanted to show you in the
earlier parts of this talk is where in
chemistry and in the properties of our
planet those choices were laid down so I
have many people that I need to thank
for this I absolutely want to thank
Jerry not only for the privilege of
giving you this talk but for supporting
my work and the work of my collaborators
for more than a
decade I want to thank a friend William
Melton who supported us through the last
two years in which this book was brought
to completion and Jerry also supported
me during that time of course the
National Science Foundation for bringing
the community together and the three
places yeah most importantly Santa Fe
Institute that we’re home for so many
years
yes please know the oxygen is being left
behind I should stand where I’m expected
the oxygen is being left behind so what
you’re doing is you’re losing oceans but
you’re only losing the hydrogen part of
the oceans good yes but are we are we
also gaining anything from the solar
wind uh some but probably not a lot um
we’re not gaining water we might I know
it’s a great question um I don’t know
what the gain of the rate of gain of
hydrogen is from the solar wind
quantitatively
I know it’s less than the rate of loss
but I don’t know by an order of
magnitude how much less thank you good
hmm in the back yes please
so you’re likely familiar with the
debates on whether viruses are
considered alive or not
I imagine at least I’ve heard of cases
where a virus can be as simple as just
of replicating molecule like RNA or DNA
surrounded by a protein coat not doing
anything like metabolism so do you think
that means it is not alive
great yeah lovely question I’m going to
answer that by saying that the whole
question turns out to use a form of
English that’s not meaningful in the
following sense so here’s here’s a
little bit of logical semantics work
with me and tell me if this works for
you if I use the term living thing a
thing is a noun living is a predicate
right what that means is I imagine that
I can take the whole world of things
which are fundamental and I can divide
them into two sets the living ones and
the nonliving ones but if things are not
fundamental and if life is not a
property inherent in things then the
whole notion living thing is a set of
words they satisfy the rules of syntax
but it’s not clear they actually mean
anything so what happens if the property
of being live is defined by
participating in the order of the
biosphere all the things that build it
up all those that break it down and what
we’re seeing in cells and viruses is a
form of individuality now I say is a
virus one of the forms of individuality
in its lifecycle when it’s just RNA and
a code absolutely and we can talk
scientifically about what’s special
about that form what makes it different
from a cell but I don’t ever ask the
question is the virus alive or not
because the virus is part of the
biosphere and it partakes of the
character of the living State from the
biosphere as a whole so that’s a little
bit heavy as a way to answer a very good
question
but I think it’s the answer that will
stand the test of time I’ll come right
back to you yes I’ve read there are some
you know the Big Bang at the beginning
of that kind of life that were preceded
it was a consciousness or the idea for
the universe to grow so could you apply
that to what you’re talking about here
that there was a consciousness that
helps to move this or create the origins
of life and create you know a place for
that life to grow that’s not a language
I have the ability to use in any
comfortable way in the know in a very
particular sense right I could say that
once a snowflake is formed like
commonplace processes we can talk about
aspects of the pattern that makes one
snowflake different from another and in
a similar sense I can go through the
emergence of life on a planet and then
organisms and then nervous systems and
somewhere Late Late Late I have these
incredibly complicated patterns that we
just barely understand and for me its
natural to look for consciousness as a
character of patterns at that late level
but in the same sense as I would not ask
whether something about the snowflake
was before the properties of water
because it seems to be at the wrong end
I’m not able to use a language that puts
consciousness at the low level as a form
of non-physical energy we’ve talked a
lot about physical energies but we don’t
talk about non-physical energies and
consciousness could be considered if
it’s thought of that way then it
predates everything doesn’t come after
the snowflake comes before the snowflake
no you know anyway I just wonder if
these kind of the sciences don’t all
kind of talk with each other and I think
there’s some ways where they can where
there is an interdisciplinary study
there I’m just questioning I think it’s
wonderful that you asked I think it’s a
right conversation to have
I think it’s very hard to talk and to
listen both and I will admit that my
view is pretty much a mechanic’s view of
a great many things and perhaps that
limits the set of things I can say well
I think you have largely answer to the
question I was going to ask and it is a
deed the AIA the idea I understand how
you followed this path of potala lism of
energy into living forms as a necessity
and and how you how it comes to be and
that that hypothesis is is new to me but
I’m missing the same thing the
difference between the rock and organic
and inorganic inorganic carbon and
carbon whether or not what we’ve always
called the lifecycle of the carbon cycle
the things you learn in chemistry I was
the particular properties that tell us
whether or not the energy is living or
nonliving in that whole origin and
metabolism have you given any thought to
that I think you’ve already answered it
the last thing you said but what are
your own thoughts about that and you
have any idea of using the scientific
method to try to discern that good so
that has some words in it that I can’t
address because I know how to use them
carefully the notion of energy is one
that we have struggled tremendously to
get clear for the last 250 years and one
of the great triumphs I think of a
unification in science is that energy is
energy and so it’s precisely because the
role of energy in the nonliving world
and in the living world is the same role
that we can understand how the living
world embeds in
living world and so that’s not a place
where I think it’s correct to look for
differences I think humans are great at
when they haven’t seen something
imagining something different from the
truth pads of least resistance and
failure modes are incredibly complicated
and we’ve only figured out a few of them
I think there’s huge scientific mileage
in learning how to do that in the
dominance of dynamics and of chemistry
where we’re just babies we’ve only begun
to form science in those domains does
every hydrothermal vent have life
associated with it and are the
chemistry’s the same across all those
different vents so they’ve all been
created to novo but all been the same
superb question um yes no and no
um no if if I could give you an
hour-long talk on only this one subject
in a university department the things I
would tell you so first thing to realize
there is no place we have ever drilled
dived or flown in the earth that we have
not found life which is one of the
reasons it’s so hard to understand
origin because everything has been
colonized by somebody modern so not only
does every vent have life in it every
mineshaft hole has life in it everything
that gets blown up from the subsurface
and a volcano winds up having life in it
so there’s life everywhere there is
certainly life that is uniquely hosted
by the energy at vents but your next
question is wonderfully perceptive
because it is not all the same the vent
chemistry is not all the same and the
life that they host tracks that vent
chemistry quite in detail so the vents
that I showed you are the charismatic
ones let me give you two line thing
about geology I told you that the deep
rock in the earth has mostly this iron
to plus character to it when it comes up
it gets oxidized that’s the process of
converting what’s called mantle into
crust normally you don’t see mantle on
the surface you only see crust on the
surface and the Magma’s that make crust
when they interact with water they
create these black smokers that are full
of metals and they have very acidic pH 2
or 3 in rare cases you can actually get
some of the material that’s supposed to
be protected down below exposed on the
surface it can be stripped off by
faulting the picture I showed you of the
lithosphere is Oman it’s a place where
continent formation actually causes to
be shoved up on the surface of dry land
in those areas it turns out you do not
produce acidic vents you produce
alkaline vents and you produce enormous
amounts of hydrogen if I showed you the
undersea version of those they do not
have black smoke because without acid
they don’t dissolve metals they don’t
dissolve sulfide instead they’re white
and shimmery and they produce carbonate
chimneys in today’s oceans if you looked
at those you would not find tubeworms
you would not find crabs or snails or
clams or shrimp you would find only
bacteria and archaea so would be a very
dull picture compared to the one I
showed you but its enormous ly important
because it turns out I think the reason
and there’s so many things I didn’t tell
you about even the black smoker world in
spite of the fact that they live on a
tiny energy budget far from the Sun
those two worms are actually the fastest
grown organisms known they that’s the
fastest production of biomass of any
known system and I think the reason for
that is that we need metals to live and
that’s what those vents are producing in
profusion without the metals you go into
a much sort of more miserly mode of life
where only the most conservative
bacteria and archaea can make it but
thank you Green and we have a couple
people here on the site too yes do you
what do you think of the theory of
panspermia as the cause of life and
could you define it for the audience yes
with pleasure good so panspermia was the
idea that in the non polemical form life
may not have originated on earth it may
have originated somewhere else and been
transported to earth now the polemical
form it’s really hard to understand how
life originated on earth and we only had
four and a half billion years to do it
the universe is 13 billion years old so
that’s more than a factor of 2 maybe if
we had the whole universe we’d have more
time now that was the old-fashioned
version sort of a 1970s version there
are more modern and more sophisticated
versions where people say that some of
the things about the
Tron battery that I showed you are
actually stronger on Mars than they are
on earth and some of the properties of
water may have been easier early on
those are very technical arguments on I
don’t know how to evaluate them I
consider those to be the most plausible
arguments that there could be important
chemistry relevant to the origin of life
that could be on a planet other than our
own where the life evolved to some
significant degree of complexity and was
then transported here for my own
preference I regard those with suspicion
because I think when we find something
difficult
we probably say oh that must mean it’s
impossible and our understanding is too
primitive to draw a conclusion like that
at this point we understand how hard it
is to make life on Earth precisely
because we understand the chemistry of
life on Earth so well and so is it
sensible to go someplace where we
understand the chemistry less well where
we have to rely on transport through
space to deliver but then here’s the
most important thing if you think my
argument has any validity that we should
look at life as a breakdown process so
that only the only things that persist
are the things that were the native
state anyway and you just had to get to
them if life on Earth was not the native
state to get into and it was a more
native state somewhere else then why
would it have been a robust thing to
build it there and transport it here
why would it have survived here for four
billion years without interruption if it
was not a thing that would natively form
here now that’s not strong enough to be
a science argument and I understand
sweetness but that direction is the
drift of my not worrying a lot about
pence per Meah
do you agree to the theories of George
Wald who said that life came from an
electric strike like lightning that hit
the elements the Earth’s primordial
atmosphere and life evolved from that
those experiments where amino acids
devolved into proteins and life form do
agree with those theories I would not
repeat them in the way their original
investigators believed them to be true
um again to speak a little bit carefully
lightning strikes turn out to matter on
earth because they do something very
difficult they take n2 which is a very
strong molecule and they break it up
into the forms of nitrogen that wind up
being chemically interesting that may
matter but I think it only matters at
the scale of the whole planetary dynamic
the chemistry of the atmospheres is
extremely different from the chemistry
of life you remember I said that
chemistry and water is very restrictive
and there are a lot of things that you
can’t do with it
the chemistry of carbon and of metals in
the deep subsurface is incredibly
similar to our biochemistry so much so
that you can look at enzymes that use
metals and they use them as if they had
just taken a mineral center and learned
how to harness it for certain types of
jobs those things were not known when
George Wald was writing these things and
I think a lot of the opinions you’re
talking about come more from Stanley
Miller and the followers of Stanley
Miller up after 1953 his experiments
were groundbreaking but there are two
things two ways you can interpret them
one you could suppose that those
experiments were good models for the
origin of life that I think doesn’t hold
up so well now though there are still
many people who disagree with me but
what you could say instead is if
chemistry and the atmosphere that’s so
different from biochemistry led to amino
acids many of which are the same as
those in biochemistry what should we be
learning about the paths of least
resistance in organic chemistry that can
cause very different starting points to
collapse into a few paths and then kind
of like trees growing along the
waterways in the desert does
biochemistry use the chemicals it does
because it’s following those paths of
least resistance even if we learned
about them in the wrong environment and
there’s somebody who really wants to ask
another question and I don’t want to cut
him off okay so you will be the last one
you’ve had your hand up there where Oh
no I’m almost embarrassed to stand up
considering the quality of all the
questions here but as a practical matter
we are so familiar with the term climate
change and what’s happening in climate
change is is mankind doing anything
relative to climate change that would
affect your theories in any way shape or
form or is they two completely different
subjects I’m so glad that you got a
chance to ask because it would have been
ashamed not to hear I don’t think that
the things that people are doing affect
the theories but I would like this work
to affect the things that people do so
this was the point that Jerry opened
with in biology too much we have put
ecosystem sensibility kind of in the
periphery and we focused on organisms
and when we interact with a natural
world whether we do it industrially or
agronomically we try to engineer
organisms and we try to we try to
influence systems with a few components
as if we were building a watch or a
bridge and routinely it winds up putting
us in places where we don’t want to be
or what we shouldn’t want to be if
biology can anchor ecology more
centrally and start to understand the
regression of ecosystems toward certain
patterns that it’s very hard to pull
them away from maybe biology can help us
head off misunderstandings in the world
of application and make us a little bit
more intelligent or in some cases a
little bit more precautionary about what
we do biology as a science is sound but
biology as a science is not always
proactive enough to miss to anticipate
the mistakes people are going to make a
more ecological biology may prime us to
be a little bit better at second
guessing the things that can go wrong
and trying to be careful ahead of time
you

Cooperativas do povo: Nos USA, bancos dos correntistas, cooperativas de produção, consumo e comercio

março 21st, 2019

xxxxx

( continuar este artigo e assunto com links)

The Economy: Under New Ownership

How cooperatives are leading the way to empowered workers and healthy communities.

https://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/how-cooperatives-are-driving-the-new-economy/the-economy-under-new-ownership

Equal Exchange— an employee-owned cooperative. Its main business remains the fair trade coffee and chocolate the company started with in 1986. Since then, the company has flourished, and its mission remains supporting small farmer co-ops in developing countries and giving power to employees through ownership. I count myself lucky to be one of its few investors who are not worker-owners. Over more than 20 years, it has paid investors a steady and impressive average of 5 percent annually (these days, a coveted return).

Matrix/DNA: Ok, vamos estudar isso. Suponhamos que 200 trabalhadores e outros, de um mesmo bairro, decida montar uma cooperativa de consumo prevendo tambem producao. Tem que ver a papelada legal, alugar um barracao e ja ter garantido pelo menos seis meses de aluguel, comprar o primeiro caminhao de mercadorias (arroz, feijao, oleos, etc. e lavanderia produtos de higiene que agregam mais lucro). Entao: Aluguel (1.500,00 – mais internet=100,00, mais telefone=50,00, mais luz=150,00, mais agua=50,00. Total do aluguel = 1.850,00), vezes 6 meses (9.000,00, ou 11.100,00). Note-se que apenas o aluguel seria obrigatorio no inicio, o resto seria opcional. A papelada (Ong?… 2.000,00) mercadoria no caminhao (100.000,00). O comercio vai colocr no minimo 30% de lucro nos 100.000,00, o que sobretaxa 30.000,00. Entao custo inicial = 111.000,00. Dividido entre 200 socios: sao 555,00 para cada um.

Nao creio ser possivel, no Brasil. Nao vao aparecer 200 pessoas num bairro dispostas a investir este dinheiro. Talvez seria possivel se usassemos um arumento o qual vai exposto abaixo como primeira alternativa. Vamos agora ver uma segunda alternativa:

Vi dias atras num website de uma ONG que fizeram uma especie de caderneta ou lista que a dona de casa prende na parede e vai preenchendo dia a dia com os valores do que ela produz na horta, ou lavando roupa para fora, etc., e os valores que ela gasta em cada coisa domestica durante o dia. segundo o site a ciusa esta fazendo sucesso em comunidades pobres e preciso procurar o site para ver o modelo da lista. Porque vamos supor que eu pudesse fazer filantropia e tentasse montar estas cooperativas. A primeira providencia seria tentar convencer todas as familias de uma quadra, depois varias quadras vizinhas, depois o bairro inteiro, a por estas lists na parede e calcular quanto gastam mensalmente com cada produto, de arros a creme dental. Qual argumento usaria para incentivar a fazerem a lista?

” Vamos tentar ajudar voces montando aqui uma cooperativa de consumo que vai baratear seus gastos e fabricas pequenas que vao lhe render dinheiro, arrumar emprego para as pessoas do bairro e ate seus filhos. Se tudo der certo todos voces vao poder mandar esse emprego para as cucuias, serem donos de seu próprio trabalho, seu supermercado, suas fabricas, suas fazendas, etc.”

Entao suponha que ama familia apresentou a seguinte lista:

arroz = 50,00 por mes / feijao = 60,00, oleo = 12,00, sabao = 8,00, etc. isto seria considerado como “basico”, o resto, como mistura, carnes e verduras, cosmeticos, telefone, etc, nao vai ser considerado inicialmente. Suponha-se que  soma do basico resulte em 300,00/mes.

Claro que este valor vai variar de familia para familia, inclusive tem as pessoas vivendo so, etc. Mas entao somamos todos os valores de 200 familias vizinhas, e supomos que temos um valor de 300,00 x 200 = 60.000,00/mes. E pouco, nao da para comecar uma cooperativa de consumo, considerando-se os valores a pagar de aluguel, etc. Este valor de 60.000,00 inclui o lucro dos comerciantes, que no geral vamos calcular de 30%. Isto da 18.000,00 que retirados dos 60.000,00 fica 42.000,00, que e o que seria pago ao atacadista. Dividido os 18.000,00 por 200 daria 90,00 para cada socio de ecomomia mensal, mas deste valor teria que tirar no minimo uns 2.000,00 mensal que seria o custo minimo do armazem alugado com luz, telefone, agua, ( e mais para a frente vamos ver instalacoes, computador, internet, etc.).

Para montar este esquema os socios ou um filantropico teriam que desembolsar inicialmente: 42.000,00 para o atacadista,  + 6 meses de aluguel a 1.500,00, + algumas instalacoes como prateleiras, estrados, mesa, cadeiras, telefone fixo ou celular, mais agua/luz, + a papelada para legalizar a cooperativa ou ONG ( ou nao legaliza nada inicialmente?) o que daria aproximadamente uns 55 a 60.000,00. isto dividido entre os socios daria 300,00/mes para cada um, justo a quantia que gastariam sem cooperativa. Qual a vantagem? Do meu ponto de vista a vantagem seria total pois estaria se iniciando o maior empreendimento da vida destas pessoas, alem do que teriam um armazem para usar em outras atividades, como reunuoes buscando outras formas de parcerias, aniversarios, etc. mas nao se pode contar com essa visao num povo que vem a 500 anos sendo doutrinado para ser separado, individualista, egoista e sem calculos/planejamentos financeiros nem para o proximo mes. Mas vamos continuar nessa linha se suposicao. Tem outras coisas a serem consideradas:

  • como seriam feitos os pagamentos cada vez que um socio fizesse sua compra? Nao haveria pagamento, apenas anotacao numa caderneta da casa e na caderneta do socio.
  • Quem ficaria 10 horas por dia, 30 dias por mes, na casa? Ou os socios concordariam com certos horarios de abertura atendendidos voluntariamente por cada um? Ou um empregado a 2.000,00/mes, 40 horas semanais, o que daria 20,00/ mes para cada socio?  O empregado seria eleito como alguem desempregado das 200 familias? E quem ficaria a noite, nos sabados e domingos? Dois empregados em rodizio?
  • xxxxx ( Parei aqui) xxxxxx  

 

 

xxxxxx

Mas,…vamos voltar a explorar a primeira alternativa acima, onde 200 moradores de um bairro se associam com seu proprio capital e por si mesmos: Poderiamos usar o seguinte argumento:

“Você vai desembolsar agora 555,00 mas você tem como garantia 650,00 em mercadoria que pode sacar a medida que precisar, talvez serão 2 meses. Já tem um lucro de 95,00. Se por os 555,00 na poupança, a 0,4% ao mês, vais receber 2,00 por mês, então em 2 meses, seriam 4,00. Assim você ganha 95,00 – 4,00 = 91,00. Ainda ganha 91,00 reais. Por cima, tens o barracão pago por seis meses, para fazerem algum coisa nele. O importante de tudo e’ a experiencia, a tentativa de – se o projeto crescer – sair da pobreza, pois não tem limites para o crescimento. Amanha poderemos ter nossas fazendas e nossas fabricas produzindo estes produtos numa sociedade da cidade inteira, do Estado inteiro, do Brasil inteiro, ou ate’ do mundo inteiro. “

Mas vamos supor outros elementos que podem se agregarem aqui, para melhor, nunca se esquecendo que também podem ocorrer elementos para pior, como ratos no barracão, perda de arroz nas pesagens, etc.

Como os sócios vão embalar o que compram? Tem que levar sacolas, sacos de casa. Ja contribui para menas poluição do planeta. Quem vai ficar na cooperativa o dia todo, as vezes os sócios só podem ir comprar `a noite…? Em 200 familias sempre vai ter pessoas desocupadas, como aposentados, deficientes fisicos,  comunidade teria que levantar isso e fazer um horario de rodizio. Tambem pode se usar o recurso de as chaves ficarem com quem mora perto, e o comprador telefona antes avisando que vai. Hummm… duas ideias surgem aqui:

  • Vai ser preciso comprar algumas instalacoes, como duas balancas, uma grande e outra pequena, talvez prateleiras e estrados, mesa, cadeiras… Tambem seria necessario ter um telefone com numero da casa, o que implica no aumento do aluguel em 50,00. Nao incluimos isso no capital acima.
  • Como sera feito os pagamentos? Nao paga com dinheiro. Fica uma caderneta na cooperativa anotando todas as retiradas de todos os socios e cada socio tem sua caderneta.
  • Muito importante: comprar um computador e instalar internet. O que implicaria no aumento do aluguel em 100,00. A maioria dos pobres nao tem computador, internet apenas no celular. Entao a cooperativa ja comecaria a funcionar tambem como uma lan house. Os jovens e criancas seriam os maiores candidatos a usarem. Mas eles dificilmente tem o dinheiro para pagar as horas. Entao a casa faria um plano de tantas horas gratuitas para cada associado. Seria calculado das 8h da manha as 18h, 10 horas por dia ( supondo que mais alguem estaria na casa durante todas estas horas), 300 horas por mes, entao cada socio ( ou membros de sua familia) teria 1 hora e meia de graca por mes. Numa lista na parede – que seria copiada no cumputador – cada socio escreveria sua data e hora de uso. Nota: observe que mais a frente, no item internet, vamos deparar com problemas que vai mudar este calculo. Em que horas alguem da casa vai usar o computador para registrar a contabilidade da cooperativa? Isto seria preferencial e diminuiria as horas gratuitas para cada socio. Tambem teria que comprar uma impressora e papeis para imiprimir os balancos e pendurar na parede e depois para mandar uma copia para cada socio.
  • Mas aqui comecam a surgir um monte de ideias derivadas. Cada computador custa, digamos, 3.000,00. Dividido por 200 socios, da 15,00 cada um. A casa colocaria o segundo computador pra aluguel, a 2,00 por hora. Tanto para socios como nao-socios. O jovem que quer usar mais e tem 2,00 no bolso vai la’. Se alugar as 300 horas mensais vai dar 600,00 no primeiro mes, digamos 31 de abril. No segundo mes os socios poe mais 2.400,00 do bolso ( 12,00 cada um), que com os 600,00, compra outro terceiro computador. Este vai render mais 600,00 que no final do mes 31/maio, os dois computadores de aluguel rendem 1.200,00. Entao poe mais 1.800,00 ( 9,00 cada um) e compram outro computador. Agora a casa tem 4 computadores, um fixo gratuito para os socios e 3 para aluguel. 3 x 600,00 = 1.800,00, no terceiro mes, ou 31/junho. Alguns senões: os computadores nao vao estarem alugados todo o tempo, entao os 600,00/mes nao sao garantidos. Para cada novo computador tem que comprar uma mesa e uma cadeira. Mas… entao em 31 junho os socios poe mais 1.200,00 (6,00 cada um) que com 1.800,00… vem o quarto computador para aluguel. Bem, esse ramo da lan house seria algo paralelo, a renda nao seria muito previsivel, os computadores iriam ocupar espaco que talvez faltasse as mercadorias, etc. Mas temos que considerar que em 4 meses os socios vao ter 5 computadores pagos num valor de 15.000,00 quando de seus bolsos sairam apenas (15 + 12 + 9 + 6) = 42,00. Sao 5 computadores novos que se venderem por 2.000,00 cada fazem 10.000,00 que dividido da 50,00 cada um… mais as 6 horas ( 4 meses a 1,5 h = 6,00 h) de uso gratuito mais o uso do computador pela cooperativa. E aqui surge outro problema que nos obriga a voltar no inicio e recalcular uso do computador fixo e gastos com mais instalacoes (impressora) e papel.
  • Mas de tudo isso, vimos que da ideia inicial de um armazem apenas com mercadorias, já surgiu uma atividade anexa beneficiando os socios: a internet em computadores partilhados, uma lan house.
  • Um bar num barracão anexo ao armazém?

Lista de Canais sobre Ciencias no Youtube

março 21st, 2019

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https://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2019/03/19/a-hangout-about-science-communication/

We brought up a few channels that are worth checking out:

3Blue1Brown
AronRa
Ben G Thomas
Brief Brain Facts
Draw Curiosity
Frankus Lee
Kurzgesagt
Mathologer
Neurotransmissions 
PBS Eons
Paulogia
SciShow
SciStrike
Scott Manley
Shawn
Stated Clearly
Step Back History
Tony Reed
Trey the Explainer
Up and Atom
WeCreateEdu

http://www.youtube.com/minutephysics

Templeton winner Gleiser

And of course, our own:

Jackson Wheat
Phrenomythic
PZ Myers 
Scientist Mel

Website construction: para backups automáticos

quarta-feira, março 27th, 2019

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Segundo a dica de um expert do wordpress.org , ele usa este sistema para fazer backup dos sites dele:

https://infinitewp.com/

Single, powerful admin panel
for all your WordPress sites

Optimized for Agencies, Developers & Freelancers

Questao: Isto quer dizer que tenho de fazer outro painel?

Meu blog e WordPress: tem algum erro de incompatibilidade

quarta-feira, março 6th, 2019

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Quando se clica “Share” e depois “com Worpress”, não funciona com o aviso “please, enter com a wordpress blog adress”.

Isto significa que meu blog não esta devidamente registrado? tentei isso com a versão pt-br. Sera que esta registrada apenas a versão en-us? Ou o inteiro website? Ver isso….

Website Construcao: para recuperar o antigo tema

sábado, fevereiro 9th, 2019

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https://wpfr.net/support/sujet/possibilite-de-choisir-une-copie-du-theme/#post-2246010

Este site e o forum de ajuda do WirdPress da Franca

Nesta pergunta o técnico diz que todos os temas ficam online ate que sejam deletados: All installed themes stay online until you delete them., ele diz.

mas onde esta? Num diretorio, talvez aqui esteja a dica: just grab the files from the directory by FTP

Mas como fazer isto, como chegar ao FTP?

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Aqui esta outra pergunta com varias respostas informativas:

https://wpfr.net/support/sujet/mettre-un-icone-image-dans-lentete-de-mon-theme/

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Testando primeiro artigo com https

segunda-feira, janeiro 7th, 2019

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Teste

Website Construction: Oficial Arquivo da WEB – O que fazer em relação a ele?

segunda-feira, dezembro 3rd, 2018

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Existe um arquivo internacional dos 340 bilhoes de websites, onde me parece que se pode registrar textos, figuras, etc. ver isto.

O link e`:

https://web.archive.org/

E quando pesquiso meu site vai neste link:

https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://theuniversalmatrix.com

Website construction: Dawkins website usa WordPress e Automatic forum. Ver isso.

segunda-feira, dezembro 3rd, 2018

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