Archive for março 2nd, 2012

Vinte fatos a Mais Sôbre o Sistema Solar que Você Talvez Não Saiba

sexta-feira, março 2nd, 2012

Até a poucos anos atrás, se alguem perguntasse a qualquer astronômo, cientista ou professor, qual o planeta mais quente do sistema solar, a resposta era sempre a mesma: Mercúrio. Pois a mente do professor rapidamente o levaria a recordar a figura do sistema solar e ver qual o planeta que está mais perto do Sol. Óbvio!

A ninguem, mas ninguem mesmo em milhares de anos ocorreu parar e pensar um pouco antes de responder. Se o fizesse a resposta seria: “Não sei. Pela lógica seria Mercurio porque é o mais próximo do Sol, porem é preciso considerar que a temperatura de um planeta tambem depende de sua constituição material e só poderemos responder a esssa pergunta com certeza quando conhecer-mos a constituição material de todos os planetas.”

E aconteceu. Agora se descobre que o planeta mais quente é Vênus, que está muito mais distante do Sol que Mercurio, e a explicação está dada abaixo. Copiamos aqui o artigo a seguir porque vamos analizar ítem por ítem sob a luz dos modêlos da Matrix/DNA. São 20 ítens mostrando, como o exemplo acima, que 20 detalhes que ainda a maioria acredita, está errada. E informações preocupantes: por exemplo, a de que nós vivemos dentro do Sol! Nós estamos a voar dentro da atmosfera do Sol como os passaros voam dentro da atmosfera da Terra! Isto nos interessa porque estamos nesta guerra defendendo o modêlo astronomico sugerido na cosmovisão da Matrix/DNA contra uma comunidade que não quer nem discutir seu modêlo oficialmente aprovado por julgá-lo o unico e o correto. Mas está acontecendo a todo dia, a cada nova foto captada pelos telescópios espaciais, que estão tendo que revisar seu modêlo porque as fotos não batem com seus modêlos. Isso quando não batem os pés no chão teimando que as fotos estão erradas ou que o Universo está errado porque não se encaixa na sua teoria.

– “A foto saiu errada porque o Hubble estava de cabeça para baixo!” – chegou a afirmar alguém…

Agora numa pancada só são 20 revisões a fazer… enquanto a Matrix/DNA, com seu modêlo que continua incólume, intocável, resistindo a tudo, está a passear no parque despreocupada, tôda sorridente e orgulhosa.

Em outra ocasião aconteceu uma burrada cientifica que parece uma piada mas têve um desfêcho muito feliz. Matemáticos desenvolveram uma equação muito complexa cujo resultado final dizia: “Procurem no espaço sideral, nesta região XY24, um objeto parecido com algum planeta. Êle tem que estar lá, pois está influindo e mudando a órbita de Urânio!” Astronomos no mundo todo apontaram seus telescópios para o céu durante quase um século até que finalmente encontraram um novo planeta. Os matemáticos ficaram orgulhosos de sua capacidade e festejaram a vitória. Porem anos mais tarde um jovem estudante de matemática curioso quis aprender passo a passo como fizeram a equação e descobriu que havia um êrro absurdo, numa soma aritmética, que pela lógica inutilizava seu resultado final. Foi a vez de matemáticos e astronomos não entenderem nada:

– ” A equação estava errada mas estava certa porque o planeta estava lá. Quem está errado é o planeta, pois refeita a equação agora realmente correta, diz que lá não pode ter nenhum planeta” – dizia um

– “Mas se o planeta está lá significa que a equação certa é a errada…, quer dizer, a errada é a certa e a certa é a errada…” – respondia outro

Até que descobriram tudo: acontece que os astronomos que descobriram o planeta tinham entendido errado o local indicado pela equação errada e foram procurar neste local errado. Ora este local errado não é abrangido nem pela primeira equação que estava errada nem pela segunda equação que está certa. E nêste novo local existe de fato um planeta que era desconhecido. Seu nome correto é Pluto, o planeta que não é mais planeta. Portanto Pluto foi descoberto por acidente por astronomos trapalhões que foram num lugar errado procurar o que uma equação errada mandou-os procurar em outro lugar… Êste tal de Pluto tem causado tanta confusão que começo a desconfiar se êle não é o filho da Pluta…

Mas os vizinhos dêle tambem, lá do cinturão do Kuiper Belt, estão aprontando conosco. Devem ser parentes. Pois de lá, a bilhões de anos atrás, vieram muitos cometas que caíram nos oceanos da Terra. Cometas são feitos de gêlo de água. Portanto êles foram misturados à agua que bebemos! Por isso que tem tanta gente hoje com a cabeça viajando no espaço. Já notei gente ( como aconteceu com o Tiririca outro dia), que depois de tomar um copo de água, fica hipnotizada, olhos estatelados olhando para o céu, rindo a valer, como se tivesse numa viagem astral… Eu estou pensando em tôda vez que fôr tomar um copo de água, amarrar meus pés nos pés da mesa para evitar a possibilidade de sair voando por aí como um cometa… Tô avisando você tambem: a água que vamos começar a tomar em 2012, nêste ano de tantas previsões loucas de fim do mundo, é a que vai vir justo da faixa dos oceanos onde se calcula está a maior parte dos restos dos cometas… Amarre seus pés nos pés da mesa!

A seguir o artigo publicado na EarthSky.Org.

Ten things you may not know about the solar system (And ten more…)

http://earthsky.org/space/ten-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-solar-system
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There are many myths, misconceptions and misunderstanding about the Universe. Sometimes the things that we think we know are partly or completely wrong. Here’s a collection of 10 unexpected and intriguing facts about our solar system – our sun and its family of planets – you probably did not know!

So here we go:

20 ) The hottest planet isn’t closest to the sun
Many people know that Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, well less than half of the Earth’s distance. It is no mystery, therefore, why people would assume that Mercury is the hottest planet. We know that Venus, the second planet away from the sun, is on the average 30 million miles farther from the sun than Mercury. The natural assumption is that being farther away, it must be cooler. But assumptions can be dangerous. For practical consideration, Mercury has no atmosphere, no warming blanket to help it maintain the sun’s heat. Venus, on the other hand, is shrouded by an unexpectedly thick atmosphere, about 100 times thicker than our own on Earth. This in itself would normally serve to prevent some of the sun’s energy from escaping back into space and thus raise the overall temperature of the planet. But in addition to the atmosphere’s thickness, it is composed almost entirely of carbon dioxide, a potent greenhouse gas. The carbon dioxide freely lets solar energy in, but is far less transparent to the longer wavelength radiation emitted by the heated surface. Thus the temperature rises to a level far above what would be expected, making it the hottest planet. In fact the average temperature on Venus is about 875 degrees F, hot enough to melt tin and lead. The maximum temperature on Mercury, the planet closer to the sun, is about 800 degrees F. In addition, the lack of atmosphere causes Mercury’s surface temperature to vary by hundreds of degrees, whereas the thick mantle of carbon dioxide keeps the surface temperature of Venus steady, hardly varying at all, anywhere on the planet or any time of day or night!

19 ) Pluto was discovered by accident
As objects in space move, their trajectories can be influenced by the gravity of other objects, slightly changing or perturbing the trajectory over time. After Uranus was “discovered” in 1781, astronomers noted a small and unexpected deviation from its predicted orbit. They guessed that this may have been due to the gravitational pull of some object farther out. They began a search from an object farther from the sun than Uranus, and in 1846 German astronomer Johann Galle discovered Neptune, from observations based on mathematical predictions. However, astronomers suspected that Neptune could not be the sole cause of Uranus’ deviations from its originally calculated orbit. They refined their calculations and started looking again, and in 1930 American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto, which for 76 years was considered the 9th planet of the solar system. However, since then astronomers have discovered that the supposed perturbations that caused Uranus’ excess orbital deviations were imaginary. Revised calculations showed no need to look for any additional gravitational influence, and so Pluto was discovered by serendipity.

18 ) George Lucas doesn’t know much about “Asteroid Fields”
In many science fiction movies, spacecraft are often endangered by pesky asteroid fields. In actuality, the only asteroid belt we are aware of exists between Mars and Jupiter, and although there are tens of thousands of asteroids in it (perhaps more), they are quite widely spaced and the likelihood of colliding with one is small. In fact, spacecraft must be deliberately and carefully guided to asteroids to have a chance of even photographing one. Given the presumed manner of creation, it is highly unlikely that spacefarers will ever encounter asteroid swarms or fields in deep space.

17 ) You can make volcanoes using water as magma
Mention volcanoes and everyone immediately thinks of Mount St. Helens, Mount Vesuvius, or maybe the lava caldera of Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Volcanoes require molten rock called lava (or “magma” when still underground), right? Not really. A volcano forms when an underground reservoir of a hot, fluid mineral or gas erupts onto the surface of a planet or other non-stellar astronomical body. The exact composition of the mineral can vary greatly. On Earth, most volcanoes sport lava (or magma) that has silicon, iron, magnesium, sodium, and a host of complicated minerals. The volcanoes of Jupiter’s moon Io appear to be composed mostly of sulfur and sulfur dioxide. But it can be simpler than that. On Saturn’s moon Enceladus, Neptune’s moon Triton, and others, the driving force is ice, good old frozen H20! Water expands when it freezes and enormous pressures can build up, just as in a “normal” volcano on Earth. When the ice erupts, a “cryovolcano” is formed. So volcanoes can operate on water as well as molten rock. By the way, we have relatively small scale eruptions of water on Earth called geysers. They are associated with superheated water that has come into contact with a hot reservoir of magma.

16 ) The “edge” of the Solar System is 1,000 times farther away than Pluto
Most people have been taught that the solar system just goes out to the orbit of Pluto. Today we don’t even consider Pluto a full-fledged planet, but the impression remains. Still, we have discovered numerous objects orbiting the sun that are considerably farther than Pluto. These are “Trans-Neptunian Objects” (TNOs), or “Kuiper Belt Objects” (KBOs). The Kuiper Belt, the first of the sun’s two reservoirs of cometary material, is thought to extend to 50 or 60 astronomical units (AU, or the average distance of the Earth from the sun). An even farther part of the solar system, the huge but tenuous Oort comet cloud, may extend to 50,000 AU from the sun, or about half a light year – more than a thousand times farther than Pluto.

15 ) Almost everything on Earth is a rare element
The elemental composition of planet Earth is mostly iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, sulfur, nickel, calcium, sodium, and aluminum. While such elements have been detected in locations throughout the universe, they are merely trace elements, vastly overshadowed by the much greater abundances of hydrogen and helium. Thus Earth, for the most part, is composed of rare elements. This does not signify any special place for Earth, however. The cloud from which the Earth formed had a much higher abundance of hydrogen and helium, but being light gases, they were driven away into space by the sun’s heat as the Earth formed.

14 ) There are Mars rocks on Earth (and we didn’t bring here)
Chemical analysis of meteorites found in Antarctica, the Sahara Desert, and elsewhere have been shown by various means to have originated on Mars. For example, some contain pockets of gas that is chemically identical to the martian atmosphere. These meteorites may have been blasted away from Mars due to a larger meteoroid or asteroid impact on Mars, or by a huge volcanic eruption, and later collided with Earth.

13 ) Jupiter has the biggest ocean of any planet
Orbiting in cold space five times farther from the sun than Earth, Jupiter retained much higher levels of hydrogen and helium when it formed than did our planet. In fact, Jupiter is mostly hydrogen and helium. Given the planet’s mass and chemical composition, physics demands that way down under the cold cloud tops, pressures rise to the point that the hydrogen must turn to liquid. In fact there should be a deep planetary ocean of liquid hydrogen. Computer models show that not only is this the largest ocean known in the solar system, but that it is about 40,000 km deep – roughly as deep as the Earth is around!

12 ) Even really small bodies can have moons
It was once thought that only objects as large as planets could have natural satellites or moons. In fact the existence of moons, or the capability of a planet to gravitationally control a moon in orbit, was sometimes used as part of the definition of what a planet truly is. It just didn’t seem reasonable that smaller celestial bodies had enough gravity to hold a moon. After all, Mercury and Venus have none at all, and Mars has only tiny moons. But in 1993, the Galileo probe passed the 20-mile wide asteroid Ida and discovered its one-mile wide moon, Dactyl. Since then moons have been discovered orbiting nearly 200 other minor planets, further complicating the definition of a “true” planet.

11 ) We live inside the sun
Normally we think of the sun as being that big, hot ball of light 93 million miles away. But actually, the sun’s outer atmosphere extends far beyond its visible surface. Our planet orbits within this tenuous atmosphere, and we see evidence of this when gusts of the solar wind generate the Northern and Southern Lights. In that sense, we definitely live “inside” the sun. But the solar atmosphere doesn’t end at Earth. Auroras have been observed on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and even distant Neptune. In fact, the outer solar atmosphere, called the “heliosphere,” is thought to extend at least 100 A.U. That’s nearly 10 billion miles. In fact the atmosphere is likely teardrop shaped due to the sun’s motion in space, with the “tail” extending tens to hundreds of billions of miles downwind.
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10 ) Pluto is smaller than the USA
The greatest distance across the contiguous United States is nearly 2,900 miles (from Northern California to Maine). By the best current estimates, Pluto is just over 1400 miles across, less than half the width of the U.S. Certainly in size it is much smaller than any major planet, perhaps making it a bit easier to understand why a few years ago it was “demoted” from full planet status. It is now known as a “dwarf planet.”

9 ) Most meteorites are stone
A visit to many science museums and planetaria with meteorite exhibits may leave you with the impression that most “shooting stars” that fall to Earth are heavy chunks of nearly pure iron — in other words, iron meteorites. The truth is that iron meteorites (which usually are iron with a little nickel mixed in) really account for only about 5 percent of those known to fall on Earth. Roughly 95% are of the stone variety, similar in many ways to rocks on Earth (with some frequent and important differences). Iron meteorites tend to be over represented in displays and collections simply because they are more distinctive and easier to recognize.

8 ) Saturn isn’t the only planet with rings
Although Saturn’s rings are certainly the most beautiful and easily observed, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also all have rings. While Saturn’s bright rings likely are made of ice particles, Jupiter’s very dark and difficult to observe rings apparently are composed of dust particles. They may contain tiny fragments of broken up meteoroids or asteroids, and perhaps particles ejected by the volcanic moon Io. The ring system of Uranus is slightly more distinctive than Jupiter’s, but still very faint, and possibly resulted from collisions between small moons. The rings of Neptune are faint and dark, much like those of Jupiter. These dim rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune cannot be seen in small telescopes from Earth. So Saturn is still “Lord of the Rings,” but it is not the only ring bearer.

7 ) Saturn would float, sort of
A common and frankly, overused, saying is that Saturn would float on an ocean. The saying is used to illustrate the fact that the overall density of Saturn is 0.69, meaning that it is only 70 percent the density of water, like that of birch or cherry wood. So if you could find an ocean large enough, with a uniform gravitational field underneath, the analogy would have you see Saturn floating like a big ball of wood. But would it? In fact, the outer layers of Saturn are much less dense than water. Theoretical models suggest, however, that at about halfway toward the center of Saturn, the density has increased to equal that of water, and that the density raises dramatically all the way down to the center of the planet, where it may be as high as 13 times that of water. By contrast, most rocks on the surface of the Earth have densities only 2 or 3 times that of water. Saturn would not float in a giant bathtub or ocean as is often claimed. Only the outer parts would “float.” The inner half of the planet would sink like a very heavy stone.

6 ) The only object with an atmosphere like Earth is Titan
Contrary to popular opinion, there is one body in the solar system with an atmosphere substantially similar to Earth’s. It is Saturn’s moon Titan. Larger than our moon and almost as large as the planet Mercury, Titan has an atmosphere that is about 20% more massive than the Earth’s atmosphere. Unlike Venus’s and Mars’s atmospheres, which are much thicker and much thinner, respectively, than Earth’s and composed of Carbon Dioxide, the atmosphere of Titan is mostly Nitrogen. The Earth’s atmosphere is about 78 percent Nitrogen by volume. The similarities to the atmosphere of the Earth, and especially the presence of methane and other organic molecules, have led many to suggest that Titan can be viewed as an analog to an early Earth, or may have some kind of biologic activity. For that reason it is deemed one of the best places in the Solar System to look for evidence of life. (Note that the presence of methane and other “organic” molecules is not proof of life by any means, as these compounds can be formed through inorganic processes.)

5 ) The clouds of Venus are sulfuric acid
Just 50 years ago, astronomers had no idea what Venus was really like. They knew that it was closer to the sun than the Earth, and hence was likely hotter, but not until the late 1960s when Soviet probes first analyzed the atmosphere. What they discovered was startling. Not only is Venus hotter than Earth — much hotter — its atmosphere is much thicker. In fact, the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Venus is nearly 100 times heavier than what we experience on Earth. Unprotected humans — and spacecraft — would be very quickly disabled and crushed by the more than 1300 pounds per square inch pressure. They would be asphyxiated by the oxygen-less carbon dioxide atmosphere, and quickly baked by the 900 degree F temperature (a typical home oven on Earth goes up only to about 500 degrees F). Venus is an unwelcoming place. But wait! If the temperature, pressure and lack of oxygen are not enough, Venus has one more weapon against unwanted forms of life — sulfuric acid. It seems that the particles that form the planet enveloping white clouds are formed from sulfur dioxide and droplets sulfuric acid — battery acid. Although the sulfuric acid forms a kind of rain, it does not reach the ground on Venus, nor is it as prevalent as original thought. But in any event, Venus is a very nasty place.

4 ) The Solar System has “lost” two planets, at least
Pluto originally was considered a planet, but due largely to its diminutive size (much smaller than our moon), it has been demoted to a “Dwarf” planet. Vulcan, once thought to orbit closer to the sun than even Mercury, simply does not exist. Like the equally fictitious home of Star Trek’s Mr. Spock, the sun’s Vulcan would have been very hot and covered with deserts. In fact it likely would not have been habitable at all. All considerations are for naught, however, since it does not exist. Vulcan’s existence was proposed more than 150 years ago to explain some peculiarities of Mercury’s orbit. Bolstered by supposed observations, the idea was popular for some time. However, more recent and more refined observations have ruled out any possibility that Vulcan exists. Thus planet Vulcan, like planet Pluto, is now a sidelight to astronomical history.

In addition, recent studies have suggested that a fifth giant planet — similar to Jupiter — may have once orbited the sun, but was long since ejected from the Solar System through gravitational interactions with the other planets!

3 ) The closest place to Hell may be near Jupiter
Many people are told that Hell is at the center of the Earth, and unquestionably it must be very hot there. But a closer approximation to Hell may be in orbit around Jupiter, on the surface of the moon Io. This tortured satellite is constantly flexed, stressed and strained out of shape by Jupiter’s enormous gravity. As a result, the moon’s subsurface is heated and forms vast amounts of magma, which erupts onto the surface in numerous volcanoes and fissures. Io is the most volcanically active object in the solar system, at least in terms of relative surface involvement. It is covered with great flows of brightly colored, sulfur (brimstone)- laced lava. On top of this, Io is bathed in deadly radiation trapped in Jupiter’s radiation belt.

2 ) The sun is not burning
Even in this day and age, people still think that the sun is on fire. Others know that it is not really burning, but have no clue as to what is happening. The sun is not burning. Burning, or combustion, is a chemical reaction involving the electrons in orbit about the nuclei of atoms such as hydrogen and oxygen. Burning is not really that efficient. Physicists have calculated that if the sun were composed of some combustible material, say coal or wood, it could burn for only a few thousand years, which is less even than the known age of human civilization. Since we know the sun has been around for much, much longer than that, it can’t be burning. (Not to mention the fact that it would need an oxidant to complete the process.) So the sun is not burning. It produces heat, light and energy through a more basic and efficient process called nuclear fusion. In nuclear fusion, the very hearts of atoms are transformed from one element to another, which releases tremendous amounts of energy. We have harnessed the same process in the form of a hydrogen (or nuclear) bomb. In this way, the sun has been able to shine without “burning” for billions of years.

1 ) We may be drinking comets
Comets are relatively rare today. Seeing a big, bright comet is a once in a lifetime event for some folks. But long ago — long ago — they were much more common. In fact, as the solar system formed some billions of years ago, astronomers believe that comets were much more common. They frequently crashed into Earth, long before humans and perhaps before any life existed on our planet. Astronomers have determined that comets are composed mostly of ice — water ice. One popular theory is that so many of these icy bodies crashed into the Earth that their ices melted and formed Earth’s oceans. Although there are other possibilities and some questions remain, the idea that our oceans are really melted comets is probably the best. So go have yourself a glass of comet!