Archive for julho 17th, 2013

Alguém é mais extrovertido porque tem mais dopamina ou tem mais dopamina porque é extrovertido? O conflito entre Psicologia Moderna e a Matrix/DNA

quarta-feira, julho 17th, 2013

Baseado no artigo:

What makes us extroverts and introverts?

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130717-what-makes-someone-an-extrovert?ocid=global_future_rss

A Ciência Acadêmica adotou mesmo a crença de que a personalidade humana é produto de meras reações químicas no cérebro, ou seja, uma maquina. Este artigo é prova disso. Tem sido sempre assim ultimamente. Todas as novas descobertas do cérebro, novas imagens de MRI, medições de hormonios, são consideradas as causas do porque alguns indivíduos são de um jeito e outros são de outro. Neste artigo, defendem que o cérebro produz mais dopamina para prazer da amígdala e do seu núcleo, e em contrapartida isto tudo faz o individuo mover-se como marionete nessa operação, comportando-se como extrovertido, ao invés de introvertido, cujo  cérebro produz menas dopamina. Esta crença começou a formar-se depois que concluíram que a mente, ou os pensamentos, é mera produção do cerebro.

Não é o que a Teoria da Matrix/DNA sugere. Alias o que a Matrix esta sugerindo ainda esta para mim meio confuso explicar em palavras, a coisa é demasiado complexa. A Matrix não começa a historia da mente a partir do fim da historia do cérebro, ela começa a historia de ambos juntos quando inicia falando em sistemas naturais, como átomos, galaxias… Ela não esta sugerindo o oposto, ou seja, que seria o cerebro produto de uma mente, e sim, que o cerebro é produto de uma longa evolução de um sistema natural que antes do Universo já possuía cérebro e e mente. O que ela sugere é o mesmo que acontece na embriologia de um individuo, ou seja, primeiro se forma um cerebro, e aos seis ou oito meses começa a se formar a auto-consciência. Mas no caso individual, sabemos que não é o cérebro que produziu a auto-consciência, ela já existia antes daquele cerebro existir, nos pais que estavam fora do pequeno universo intra-uterino do embrião. Mas também não foi a mente dos pais que criou a mente no embrião, ela se reproduz naturalmente.

Bem, como eu tenho que tornar a Matrix/DNA conhecida e defende-la enquanto ninguém provar que ela esta errada, postei um comentário no Facebook da BBC, onde se segue uma discussão do artigo:

 

  • Louis Charles Morelli  – Is it the mind that makes extroversion through ordering the brain for producing more dopamine or the brain that is ordering to the mind to be happy? The results of my theory does not suggests that human personality is merely product of chemistry. Brains are like the hardware of computers, they works accordingly to the type of software, which is the mind. Extroversion and introversion is the biological shape of a natural systemic tendency that chooses between to be a closed or an opened system, which comes from before life”s origins, this personality of natural systems exists before the emergence of brains Another detail to be considered is that humans are bodies and minds and minds does not have the same preferences that brains have. So, the mind of one that stands at house reading a book, is doing its natural level of communication, among minds, with the author the personages, etc. The mind of one at the middle of a noise is not communicating. So, the social introverted is a minded extroverted and vice-verse. What we learn here is that this world is very, very complex, things are not what they appears to be… we need know more before judgement…
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    PESQUISA DA MATRIX/DNA
    Dopamine – Nucleus accumbens
    Wikipedia:
    Dopamine is a simple organic chemical in the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the brains and bodies of animals. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA.
    Nota da Matrix: Esta parecendo a face esquerda da Matrix, contendo as funções 1 e 2, talvez a 3. Mas o hexagono é um benzeno ( como se vê abaixo) e fica a duvida se ele representa apenas a F1 ou representa o circuito inteiro, fixando-o para então gerar o resto.  Notar que parte da F7 esta tambem no inicio da formula. Se a linha quebrada depois do hexagono não é uma função  ela representa a massa degradada ou poeira estelar vindo de f7, o que se somaria com os HO no inicio da formula. Isto explicaria uma propriedade de re- enforcamento motivacional. Toda vez que um estimulo externo é visto como oportunidade de lucro ou prazer, o pensamento ativa a expressão da face esquerda que é a face crescente, e esta ativação reinforca o pensamento motivado. Notar que o hexagono é um benzeno.
     A catecholamine (CA) is an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine
    Catechol

    Catecholamines derive from the amino acid tyrosine.[2] Catecholamines are water-soluble and are 50%-bound to plasma proteins when they circulate in the bloodstream.

    In the human body, the most abundant catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine, all of which are produced fromphenylalanine and tyrosine. Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response.[3]

    Tyrosine is created from phenylalanine by hydroxylation by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Tyrosine is also ingested directly from dietary protein. Catecholamine-secreting cells use several reactions to convert tyrosine serially to L-DOPA and then to dopamine. Depending on the cell type, dopamine may be further converted to norepinephrine or even further converted to epinephrine.[4]

    Various stimulant drugs are catecholamine analogues.

    Norepinephrine

    Phenethylamineβ-phenethylamine, or phenylethylamine is an organic compound and a natural monoamine alkaloid, atrace amine, and also the name of a class of chemicals with many members well known for psychoactive drug and stimulant effects.[1]Phenylethylamine functions as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.[2] It is biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation. In addition to its presence in mammals, phenethylamine is found in many other organisms and foods, such as chocolate, especially after microbial fermentation. It is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-relatedtherapeutic benefits; however, orally ingested phenethylamine is usually inactive because of extensive first-pass metabolism by monoamine oxidase(MAO) into phenylacetic acid. This prevents significant concentrations from reaching the brain.[3][4]

    The group of phenethylamine derivatives is referred to as the phenethylamines. Substituted phenethylaminessubstituted amphetamines, andsubstituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines (MDxx) are a series of broad and diverse classes of compounds derived from phenethylamine that include stimulantspsychedelics, and entactogens, as well as anorecticsbronchodilatorsdecongestants, and antidepressants, among others.

    Phenethylamine

     

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    Continuar Pesquisa acima na Wikipedia
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    Behav Brain Sci. 1999 Jun;22(3):491-517; discussion 518-69.

    Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion.

    Source

    Department of Human Development, Laboratory of Neurobiology of Personality and Emotion, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. rad5@cornell.edu

    Abstract

    Extraversion has two central characteristics: (1) interpersonal engagement, which consists of affiliation (enjoying and valuing close interpersonal bonds, being warm and affectionate) and agency (being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive, being exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals) and (2) impulsivity, which emerges from the interaction of extraversion and a second, independent trait (constraint). Agency is a more general motivational disposition that includes dominance, ambition, mastery, efficacy, and achievement. Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and motivation) is closely associated with extraversion. Extraversion is accordingly based on positive incentive motivation. Parallels between extraversion (particularly its agency component) and a mammalian behavioral approach system based on positive incentive motivation implicate a neuroanatomical network and modulatory neurotransmitters in the processing of incentive motivation. A corticolimbic-striatal-thalamic network (1) integrates the salient incentive context in the medial orbital cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; (2) encodes the intensity of incentive stimuli in a motive circuit composed of the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area dopamine projection system; and (3) creates an incentive motivational state that can be transmitted to the motor system. Individual differences in the functioning of this network arise from functional variation in the ventral tegmental area dopamine projections, which are directly involved in coding the intensity of incentive motivation. The animal evidence suggests that there are three neurodevelopmental sources of individual differences in dopamine: genetic, “experience-expectant,” and “experience-dependent.” Individual differences in dopamine promote variation in the heterosynaptic plasticity that enhances the connection between incentive context and incentive motivation and behavior. Our psychobiological threshold model explains the effects of individual differences in dopamine transmission on behavior, and their relation to personality traits is discussed.

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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611493

    Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Dec;31(1):6-41.

    The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: a unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking.

    Source

    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. sikemoto@intra.nida.nih.gov

    Abstract

    Studies addressing behavioral functions of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) are reviewed. A role of NAS DA in reward has long been suggested. However, some investigators have questioned the role of NAS DA in rewarding effects because of its role in aversive contexts. As findings supporting the role of NAS DA in mediating aversively motivated behaviors accumulate, it is necessary to accommodate such data for understanding the role of NAS DA in behavior. The aim of the present paper is to provide a unifying interpretation that can account for the functions of NAS DA in a variety of behavioral contexts: (1) its role in appetitive behavioral arousal, (2) its role as a facilitator as well as an inducer of reward processes, and (3) its presently undefined role in aversive contexts. The present analysis suggests that NAS DA plays an important role in sensorimotor integrations that facilitate flexible approach responses. Flexible approach responses are contrasted with fixed instrumental approach responses (habits), which may involve the nigro-striatal DA system more than the meso-accumbens DA system. Functional properties of NAS DA transmission are considered in two stages: unconditioned behavioral invigoration effects and incentive learning effects. (1) When organisms are presented with salient stimuli (e.g., novel stimuli and incentive stimuli), NAS DA is released and invigorates flexible approach responses (invigoration effects). (2) When proximal exteroceptive receptors are stimulated by unconditioned stimuli, NAS DA is released and enables stimulus representations to acquire incentive properties within specific environmental context. It is important to make a distinction that NAS DA is a critical component for the conditional formation of incentive representations but not the retrieval of incentive stimuli or behavioral expressions based on over-learned incentive responses (i.e., habits). Nor is NAS DA essential for the cognitive perception of environmental stimuli. Therefore, even without normal NAS DA transmission, the habit response system still allows animals to perform instrumental responses given that the tasks take place in fixed environment.

    (Nota da Matrix: Esta parecendo que o fixed instrumental approach responses (habits) é a expressão de LUCA no animal, enquanto, com a evolução  surgiu a flexible approach responses. Isto significaria que LUCA domina o cérebro animal, mesmo sendo herdeiro da célula como sistema aberto, ate certo estagio da evolução  e depois começa a emergir o estado de sistema aberto no cerebro (flexible approach). Faz sentido. Isto marcaria a divisão entre auto-consciente e não consciente. A segunda fase, ou seja, a flexibilidade nas respostas do cerebro, abriria caminho para a consciencia se manifestar.)

    Such a role of NAS DA as an incentive-property constructor is not limited to appetitive contexts but also aversive contexts. This dual action of NAS DA in invigoration and incentive learning may explain the rewarding effects of NAS DA as well as other effects of NAS DA in a variety of contexts including avoidance and unconditioned/conditioned increases in open-field locomotor activity. Particularly, the present hypothesis offers the following interpretation for the finding that both conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli stimulate DA release in the NAS: NAS DA invigorates approach responses toward ‘safety’. Moreover, NAS DA modulates incentive properties of the environment so that organisms emit approach responses toward ‘safety’ (i.e., avoidance responses) when animals later encounter similar environmental contexts. There may be no obligatory relationship between NAS DA release and positive subjective effects, even though these systems probably interact with other brain systems which can mediate such effects. The present conceptual framework may be valuable in understanding the dynamic interplay of NAS DA neurochemistry and behavior, both normal and pathophysiological.

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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9168269

    Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1997 May;21(3):341-59.

    Behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine: empirical and conceptual problems with the anhedonia hypothesis.

    Source

    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269-1070, USA.

    Nucleus accumbens (DA) has been implicated in a number of different behavioral functions, but most commonly it is said to be involved in “reward” or “reinforcement“. In the present article, the putative reinforcement functions of accumbens DA are summarized in a manner described as the “General Anhedonia Model”. According to this model, the DA innervation of the nucleus accumbens is conceived of as a crucial link in the “reward system”, which evolved to mediate the reinforcing effects of natural stimuli such as food. The reward system is said to be activated by natural reinforcing stimuli, and this activation mediates the reinforcing effects of these natural stimuli. According to this view, other stimuli such as brain stimulation and drugs can activate this system, which leads to these stimuli being reinforcing as well. Interference with DA systems is said to blunt the reinforcing effects of these rewarding stimuli, leading to “extinction”. This general model of the behavioral functions of accumbens DA is utilized widely as a theoretical framework for integrating research findings. Nevertheless, there are several difficulties with the General Anhedonia Model. Several studies have observed substantial differences between the effects of extinction and the effects of DA antagonism or accumbens DA depletions. Studies involving aversive conditions indicate that DA antagonists and accumbens DA depletions can interfere with avoidance behavior, and also have demonstrated that accumbens DA release is increased by stressful or aversive stimuli. Although accumbens DA is important for drug abuse phenomena, particularly stimulant self-administration, studies that involve other reinforcers are more problematic. A large body of evidence indicates that low doses of dopamine antagonists, or depletions of accumbens DA, do not impair fundamental aspects of food motivation such as chow consumption and simple instrumental responses for food. This is particularly important, in view of the fact that many behavioral researchers consider the regulation of food motivation to be a fundamental aspect of food reinforcement. Finally, studies employing cost/benefit analyses are reviewed, and in these studies considerable evidence indicates that accumbens DA is involved in the allocation of responses in relation to various reinforcers. Nucleus accumbens DA participates in the function of enabling organisms to overcome response costs, or obstacles, in order to obtain access to stimuli such as food. In summary, nucleus accumbens DA is not seen as directly mediating food reinforcement, but instead is seen as a higher order sensorimotor integrator that is involved in modulating response output in relation to motivational factors and response constraints. Interfering with accumbens DA appears to partially dissociate the process of primary reinforcement from processes regulating instrumental response initiation, maintenance and selection.

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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8699874

    J Neurosci Methods. 1996 Feb;64(2):137-49.

    The behavioral neurochemistry of motivation: methodological and conceptual issues in studies of the dynamic activity of nucleus accumbens dopamine.

    Source

    Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269-1020, USA.

    Abstract

    Considerable experimental and clinical evidence links forebrain dopamine (DA) systems to the performance of motor activities and to motivational processes. Much of the support for this conclusion was obtained from studies utilizing lesions or drugs to manipulate aspects of central dopaminergic function. Although such experiments yield important information concerning the behavioral consequences of interference with DA systems in brain, they do not demonstrate any relation between the dynamic activity of DA neurons and the level or type of motor function exhibited by the organism. This review discusses the emerging field of behavioral neurochemistry, and provides an overview of recent studies investigating the relation between nucleus accumbens DA release and behavior. Particular emphasis is placed upon current research involving microdialysis, voltammetry and electrophysiology. These different methods are viewed as complementary techniques for investigating the activity of DA systems in behaving animals. Evidence indicates that DA activity is most reliably activated by stimuli that trigger instrumental behavior and during the preparatory or instrumental phase of motivated behavior. The effects of consummatory reactions to positive reinforcers are somewhat equivocal; with food consumption, dialysis studies have yielded inconsistent results, while some voltammetric and electrophysiological studies have shown that DA activity in accumbens or ventral tegmental area actually decreases during consumption of food reinforcement. Moreover, the responsiveness of accumbens DA activity during behavioral stimulation is not unique to appetitive conditions, as several studies have shown that aversive or stressful conditions also stimulate accumbens DA release or metabolism. It is reasonable to suggest at this time that accumbens DA neurons are activated by a variety of different motivational conditions, but that the consequence of that activation is to modulate the behavioral reactivity of the organism. This type of function is seen as representing an area of overlap between motor and motivational processes

    Nota da Matrix: Ver varios outros papers em PubMed, tal como na seção: Dopamine/metabolism”[MeSH Terms]