Archive for novembro 10th, 2013

Cérebro: Pesquisa Baseada em Google Images

domingo, novembro 10th, 2013

Preciso decifrar a formula da Matrix/DNA no cérebro, principalmente visando obter a participação do H.D. nos meus pensamentos. Procurar as sete peças/funções, que devem ser as glândulas, etc.   DIVISIONS OF THE NERVE SYSTEM 1) Telencephalon                    2) Diencephalon                                3) Mesencephalon                  4) Metencephalon                     5) Myelencephalon                                     

Brain Structures Cerebral Cortex Functions:

  • Thought
  • Voluntary movement
  • Language
  • Reasoning
  • Perception

The word “cortex” comes from the Latin word for “bark” (of a tree). This is because the cortex is a sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain. The thickness of the cerebral cortex varies from 2 to 6 mm. The right and left sides of the cerebral cortex are connected by a thick band of nerve fibers called the “corpus callosum.” In higher mammals such as humans, the cerebral cortex looks like it has many bumps and grooves. A bump or bulge on the cortex is called a gyrus (the plural of the word gyrus is “gyri”) and a groove is called a sulcus (the plural of the word sulcus is “sulci”). Lower mammals, such as rats and mice, have very few gyri and sulci. Cerebellum Functions:

  • Movement
  • Balance
  • Posture

The word “cerebellum” is derived from the Latin word for “little brain.” Located behind the brain stem, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebral cortex because it has hemispheres and a cortex that surrounds the hemispheres. Brain stem Functions:

  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
  • Blood Pressure

The brain stem refers to the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. Structures of the brain stem include the pons, medulla oblongta, tectum, reticular formation and tegmentum. The brain stem is important for maintaining basic life functions such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Hypothalamus Functions:

  • Body Temperature
  • Emotions
  • Hunger
  • Thirst
  • Circadian Rhythms

The hypothalamus is composed of several different areas and is located at the base of the brain. The hypothalamus is only 1/300 of the total brain weight. One function of the hypothalamus is the control of body temperature. The hypothalamus detects changes in body temperature and sends commands to adjust the temperature. For example, the hypothalamus can detect fever and respond by sending a command to expand capillaries in the skin. The expansion of the capillaries cools the blood and results in a drop in body temperature. The hypothalamus also controls the pituitary. Thalamus Functions:

  • Sensory processing
  • Movement

The thalamus receives sensory information from other areas of the nervous system and sends this information to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus is also important for processing information related to movement. Limbic System Functions:

  • Emotions
  • Memory

The limbic system (or the limbic areas) is a group of structures that includes the amygdala, the hippocampus, mammillary bodies and cingulate gyrus. These areas are important for controlling the emotional response to a given situation. The hippocampus is also important for memory. Hippocampus Functions:

  • Learning
  • Memory

The hippocampus is one part of the limbic system that is important for memory and learning. Basal Ganglia Functions:

  • Movement

The basal ganglia are a group of structures, including the globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, putamen and substantia nigra, that are important in coordinating movement. Midbrain Functions:

  • Vision
  • Audition
  • Eye Movement
  • Body Movement

The midbrain includes structures such as the superior and inferior colliculi and red nucleus. There are several other areas also in the midbrain. Now that you have read about the areas of the brain, take a look at where these areas are located: brain

Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

Somatic Nervous System

[somatic<br /><br /><br /><br />
nervous system]The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to skeletal muscle. The picture on the left shows the somatic motor system. The cell body is located in either the brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle.

Autonomic Nervous System

autonomic<br /><br /><br /><br />
nervous systemThe autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands. This picture shows the general organization of the autonomic nervous system. The preganglionic neuron is located in either the brain or the spinal cord. This preganglionic neuron projects to an autonomic ganglion. The postganglionic neuron then projects to the target organ. Notice that the somatic nervous system has only one neuron between the central nervous system and the target organ while the autonomic nervous system uses two neurons. viscera The enteric nervous system is a third division of the autonomic nervous system that you do not hear much about. The enteric nervous system is a meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, gall bladder). xxxxxx

Lobes of the Brain The average human brain weighs about 1,400 grams (3 lb). The brain looks a little like a large pinkish-gray walnut. The brain can be divided down the middle lengthwise into two halves called the cerebral hemispheres. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes by sulci and gyri. The sulci (or fissures) are the grooves and the gyri are the “bumps” that can be seen on the surface of the brain. The folding created by the sulci and gyri increases the amount of cerebral cortex that can fit in the skull. The total surface area of the cerebral cortex is about 324 square inches or about the size of a full page of newspaper. Each person has a unique pattern of gyri and sulci. FRONTAL LOBE

  • Located in front of the central sulcus.
  • Concerned with reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement (motor cortex), emotions, and problem-solving.

Find out more about the frontal lobe with the story of an unlucky worker in 1848 who survived an iron rod that went through his head!! Read about Mr. Gage and the frontal lobe in a GREAT multimedia slide show. If you are interested in a book about Phineas Gage, try Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science by John Fleischman (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002). PARIETAL LOBE

  • Located behind the central sulcus.
  • Concerned with perception of stimuli such as touch, pressure, temperature and pain.


  • Located below the lateral fissure.
  • Concerned with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus).


  • Located at the back of the brain, behind the parietal lobe and temporal lobe.
  • Concerned with many aspects of vision.
These brain images are being used with permission of the Slice of Life.


Functional Divisions of the Cerebral Cortex The cerebral cortex is responsible for many “higher-order” functions like language and information processing. Language centers are usually found only in the left cerebral hemisphere. For more information on language and differences between the right and left cerebral hemisphere, read aboutsplit brain experiments.

Cortical Area Function
Prefrontal Cortex Problem Solving, Emotion, Complex Thought
Motor Association Cortex Coordination of complex movement
Primary Motor Cortex Initiation of voluntary movement
Primary Somatosensory Cortex Receives tactile information from the body
Sensory Association Area Processing of multisensory information
Visual Association Area Complex processing of visual information
Visual Cortex Detection of simple visual stimuli
Wernicke’s Area Language comprehension
Auditory Association Area Complex processing of auditory information
Auditory Cortex Detection of sound quality (loudness, tone)
Broca’s Area Speech production and articulation
Broca’s Area Wernicke’s Area


The Primary Somatosensory Cortex Parts of the cerebral cortex in the parietal lobe are involved with processing information related to touch. One such area is the primary somatosensory cortex which is located behind the central sulcus. Neurons in the primary somatosensory are activated when the skin is touched. However, the body is NOT represented in the cortex in proportion to the amount of skin. A map of the human somatosensory cortex was drawn by Dr. Wilder Penfield, a neurosurgeon, in the 1950s. After stimulating the cortex of patients undergoing brain surgery for epilepsy, Dr. Penfield asked the patients what they felt. By observing the location on the brain that caused patients to feel sensations on different parts of their bodies, Dr. Penfield was able to draw a map of the brain. As you can see in this figure above, even though the arms and trunk make up most of your body, they are not given much cortical tissue. However, the face and hands take up a good portion of the primary somatosensory cortex. This is because the amount of primary somatosensory cortex is directly related to the sensitivity of a body area and the density of receptors found in different parts of the body. The areas of skin with the higher density of receptors (like the face, hands and fingers) have more cortical tissue devoted to them. If you were “built” in proportion to the amount of cortex devoted to each part of your body, you would look a bit distorted: you would have a big head and hands and a small torso and tiny legs. This distorted body map is called a homunculus which means “little man.” XXXXX

Cérebro e Circuitos Sistêmicos – Para Ler e Pesquisar

domingo, novembro 10th, 2013

What are you scared of?

Different brain regions process different types of fear