Archive for janeiro 12th, 2015

Da célula unica para multicelulares: Como a Matrix/DNA explica o Oxigenio abrindo sistemas fechados.

segunda-feira, janeiro 12th, 2015

Impressionante mecanismo natural transformou os organismos de uma célula só que dominaram a Terra por 1,5 bilhão de anos nos organismos multicelulares como os humanos. O artigo abaixo me levou a estudar a fórmula da Matrix/DNA e descobrir este mecanismo, o qual vai relatado em português logo abaixo:

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http://news.stanford.edu/news/2009/january7/oxysize-010709.html

Life on Earth got bigger in two, million-fold leaps

Above: Tony Hisgett / Below: Courtesy of Andrew Knoll (Harvard University)oxysize

Animals come in all sizes, yet they all sprang from the same single-celled organisms. In a recent study, researchers detailed what they discovered about the maximum size of life over all of geologic time.

Jonathan Payne

Jonathan Payne

BY LOUIS BERGERON

Extremes are exciting. Does anyone really think dinosaurs would capture our imagination the way they do if they hadn’t been so huge? You don’t see natural history museums vying for fossil skeletons of prehistoric rodents. It’s the Tyrannosaurus rexfossils they salivate and squabble over. And would the Hollywood glitterati cart around those little teacup pups if they weren’t so dang tiny and cute? Not likely.

Earth’s creatures come in all sizes, yet they (and we) all sprang from the same single-celled organisms that first populated the planet. So how on Earth did life go from bacteria to the blue whale?

“It happened primarily in two great leaps, and each time, the maximum size of life jumped up by a factor of about a million,” said Jonathan Payne, assistant professor of geological and environmental science at Stanford.

Payne, along with a dozen other paleontologists and ecologists at 10 different research institutions, pooled their existing databases, combed the scientific literature and consulted with taxonomic experts in a quest to determine the maximum size of life over all of geological time.

That might sound like a rather large undertaking, but, fortunately, the quest was made easier because even the professionals have a fascination with the size of the fossilized.

“The nice thing about maximum size is that people tend to remark on very large fossils, so they are much easier to track down in the geologic literature than anything else,” Payne said.

In addition to quantifying the enormity of the two leaps in maximum size, the researchers also pinned down when those leaps took place. Both leaps coincided with periods when there was a major increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Payne said that many researchers already recognized, in a qualitative way, that the change in maximum size had occurred this way. “But our study really reflects the first time that anybody has tried to quantify exactly how stepwise it was and how big those size jumps were,” he said.

A paper detailing the research by Payne and his colleagues is scheduled to be published in the Dec. 22, 2008, online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and is available online through EurekAlert.

The two other principal investigators of the research group, funded through the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, are Michal Kowalewski of Virginia Tech and Jennifer Stempien of the University of Colorado-Boulder.

So how did it all happen? The first fossilized bacterial cells date to approximately 3.4 billion years ago, although life likely originated several hundred million years before. Between 2.7 and 2.4 billion years ago, cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue-green algae, originated and were of particular evolutionary and geological importance because they excrete oxygen as a waste product during photosynthesis. So far as science can tell, they were the first and only organisms to evolve oxygen-producing photosynthesis.

“All of the oxygen in the atmosphere ultimately exists because of the evolution of cyanobacteria,” Payne said. “Plants that produce oxygen today during photosynthesis, their ability to do that is ultimately derived from cyanobacteria.”

Single-celled bacteria remained the largest life form on Earth, cranking out the oxygen, until about 1.6 billion years ago. At that point, a new life form shows up in the fossil record.

“The first jump in maximum size happens when the first eukaryotic organisms show up as fossils,” Payne said. “And those fossils are approximately a million times bigger than anything that had come before on Earth.”

Although the first fossil eukaryotes were likely also single-celled organisms, the eukaryotes distinguish themselves by means of their internal structure and functioning. Instead of having the cellular processes of life take place by means of diffusion in the cell, eukaryotes have organized innards, with a nucleus and other cellular structures that are dedicated to specific functions in the respiratory process.

“The fossil record indicates pretty clearly that you need a eukaryotic cell to make that first size jump,” Payne said. “It isn’t just that the bacteria don’t get there as fast, it is that bacteria still haven’t gotten there 1.6 billion years later.

“Clearly, organismal organization matters,” Payne said. “Not just at the time the size increase happens, but it continues to be a limitation on size.

For approximately the next billion years, life on Earth stayed about the same size, with only modest increases. Then about 600 million years ago, at the same time as another major boost in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, life leaped in size again.

This time, it was a million-fold size leap of multi-cellularity. Payne said there are clearly multi-cellular eukaryotes in the fossil record for several million years before this size leap, but the real explosion of size increase didn’t happen until the oxygen level bumped up.

So why do the size leaps seem to hinge on the amount of oxygen in the air?

“There are a few things that could be going on,” Payne said. “The first thing is that eukaryotic cells require oxygen for metabolism. So if they want to take organic matter and burn it up to have energy in their cell, they need oxygen. That sets the first and probably most important limitation.”

Payne said this limitation also applies to multi-cellular eukaryotes, which likewise depend on extracting oxygen from the surrounding environment and using that in their cells to obtain energy. “There is also evidence that oxygen may mediate some other biochemical processes,” he said.

As for just what triggered both the boosts in atmospheric oxygen, Payne said that isn’t quite as clear. It may be that the first jump in oxygen came because cyanobacteria simply proliferated to the point that they were cranking out more oxygen than could be consumed through chemical reactions with material at Earth’s surface, the only way that oxygen wouldn’t have been released back into the atmosphere in the era before oxygen breathing creatures existed.

The possible causes of the second jump in oxygen are less clear, Payne said, but regardless of the puzzles that remain to be sorted out, the timing and magnitude of the jumps up in maximum size are clear. And Payne said the size jumps applied to a vast number of species.

“Whatever is controlling this second size increase appears to operate across many different groups. It is not something limiting one group alone,” he said. “There also appears to be an increase even in the maximum size of groups of organisms like multi-cellular algae, so the size increase doesn’t appear to be limited just to animals.”

One other question remains to be answered: Can we look forward to another great leap in size? Will we see housecats larger than our houses?

“We’ve speculated on that a little bit, just sort of thinking about what if you went up another step,” Payne said.

“The next level of organization, going along this kind of theme, presumably would be something like insect societies, where you have individual multicellular eukaryotes that specialize in terms of what kind of function they carry out in a larger organization of these individuals. Something like an ant colony or a human society would be in some ways the next organizational level.

“But, if you look at human society as an example, we use so much of the gross primary productivity on Earth, it doesn’t appear there would be room for a lot of species at that next level of organization and maximum size. At that point you’re actually getting towards the physical size limits just imposed by the size of our planet.”

The study was funded by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center.

A Fox tem razão se não existir ainda na literatura cientifica o mecanismo que faz uma simples célula produzir um microfilme e deste um sistema que seja a cópia maior e mais complexa da própria célula, como foram as passagens de cianobactérias para eucariotas e destas para multi-celulares. Se alguém souber um link para este mecanismo, por favor, me informe. Enquanto não aparece tal mecanismo, vou expor este mecanismo como ele é sugerido na Matrix/DNA Theory.

Nos dois saltos na evolução da vida – a passagem da cianobactéria para eucariotas e destas para multicelulares, houve antes dois bruscos aumentos de oxigênio na atmosfera. P que tem a ver o oxigênio com os saltos evolutivos dos sistemas biológicos? Isto está programado  no RNA e DNA. E como os  biológicos RNA/DNA são um produto  evolucionário de uma Matrix universal, a qual é uma simples fórmula, significa que já estava programado na Matrix. Procurando nesta fórmula como é essa “programação”, logo encontramos a resposta.

Oxigênio vem como numero atômico 8, quer dizer, 8 partículas de cada espécie. A fórmula da Matrix vai apenas até o 7. Isto pode significar duas coisas: 1) O próton a mais no Oxigênio pode reforçar a F7, que é o produto final da entropia e morte do sistema. 2) Oxigênio 8 pode reforçar F1. Tudo  depende de qual lado o Oxigênio entra no sistema, se mais perto de F7 ou F1.

No inicio da Vida, os seus sistemas biológicos ainda eram dominantemente fechados em si mesmos, devido a genética herdado diretamente de um sistema fechado. Então as cianobactérias se formaram como sistemas fechados e conseguiram manterem-se assim por quase 1,5 bilhão de anos, impedindo o avanço  da evolução. A cerca de 1,6 bilhões de anos atras houve um súbito carregamento de oxigênio na atmosfera, o que significa que pela respiração aqueles organismos foram fortemente bombardeados pelo Oxigênio. Com isso carregou-se o RNA e/ou DNA em uma de suas bases nitrogenadas – aquela que representa F7 – o que fez romper o circuito da fórmula naquele ponto impedindo a automática reciclagem dos sistemas fechados. E surgiu assim uma mutação para sistemas abertos, os quais formam um micro-filme e em seguida modelam esta colonia como projeção de si própria, gerando um novo maior e mais complexo sistema. Os assim chamados “eucariotas”.

Importante notar que a fórmula da Matrix/DNA contem em si mesma o mecanismo auto-corretor da evolução: ela mesma se auto-corrige quando seu “cavalo”toma uma direção errada rumo a se tornar sistema fechado, provocando sua abertura e reconduzindo-o ao caminho certo da evolução. Isto se nota quando percebemos que a própria cianobactéria produziu o Oxigênio, o qual funcionou como um feed-back corretor, retornando sobre ela mesma para conserta-la.

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Postado no Pharyngula: http://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2014/11/25/smug-and-stupid/comment-page-1/#comment-901166

louismorelli

Fox would be right if do not  exists in the scientific literature the mechanism that makes a single cell producing a microfilm and from it a system that is the largest and most complex copy of the cell itself, as were the steps from cyanobacteria to eukaryotic and from them, to multicellulars. If anyone knows a link to this mechanism, please let me know. While not appear such a mechanism, I will expose this mechanism as it is suggested in the Matrix / DNA Theory.
In two jumps in the evolution of life – the passage of cyanobacteria to eukaryotes to multicellular, there were before the events, two bursts with sudden increases of oxygen in the atmosphere. What has to do oxygen with evolutionary leaps of biological systems? The answer is in the RNA/DNA, it was scheduled in RNA and DNA. And as biological RNA / DNA is an evolutionary product of a universal Matrix, which is a simple formula, means that was already programmed in the Matrix. Looking at this formula for searching this “programming”, and how it works, soon I found the answer.

Oxygen is atomic number 8, that is, has 8 particles or 8 systemic functions. The Matrix/s formula, perfect and complete, has 7 functions. This may mean two things: 1) the added one proton of oxygen can enhance F7, which is the final product of the entropy of the system and which produces its death. 2) Oxygen 8 can strengthen F1. It all depends on which side the oxygen enters the system, if is closer to F7 or to F1.

At the beginning of life, their biological systems were still dominantly closed in themselves, due to genetic inherited directly from the ancestor closed system ( the astronomical system to which Earth’s belongs to). So cyanobacteria formed as closed systems and managed to remain so for nearly 1.5 billion years, preventing the advance of evolution. About 1.6 billion years ago there was a sudden loading of oxygen in the atmosphere, which means that those cyanobacterias were heavily bombarded by oxygen. With that charged the RNA and / or DNA in one of its nitrogenous bases – one that is F7 – what did break the circuit of the formula at that point, preventing the automatic recycling of closed systems. And so came a move towards opened systems, which formed a micro-film and then modeled this colony as a projection of itself, generating a new larger and more complex system. The so-called “eukaryotic”.

Important to note that the formula of the Matrix / DNA contains within itself the self-correcting mechanism of evolution: itself self-corrects when your “horse” takes a wrong direction towards becoming closed system, causing its opening and ushering it to the right path of evolution. This is noticed when we realize that the very cyanobacteria produced oxygen, which functioned as a feedback broker, returning upon itself to fix it.

Sistemas Sociais: Informativo Debate para Educadores e Pensadores, com Participação da Matrix/DNA

segunda-feira, janeiro 12th, 2015

http://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2014/11/25/smug-and-stupid/comment-page-1/#comment-901048

Smug and stupid

O comentador  Akira MacKenzie entrou no debate que se segue a este artigo com uma interessante posição: isto está tudo errado, um caos, e apenas experts no governo com mão forte proibindo a maioria das liberdades e direitos desta massa ignorante poderia nos salvar. Muitos revidaram indignados e a Matrix/DNA entrou com uma versão incomum, como sempre. Veja o artigo e nossos comentario postado abaixo:  

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N. 121

Akira MacKenzie
26 November 2014 at 4:34 pm
After some sleep and sometime to calm down and think, I realize I’m been acting stupid, stubborn, and more than a little insane.

But,… you said two right things: this is chaos and it is everything wrong. The problem is that would be worst if some human could impose order and fixing everything. Ants and bees already did it and they have the explanation why we can’t do that. Any system that gets the ordered state by itself, every part are slaves of the system ans eternally stupid, included the queen. Because the system becomes a closed system, closing doors to evolution, and will last till be discarded by Nature.

We are product of a chaotic biosphere which is product of a perfect ordered astronomic machine. There is a possible explanation: slow entropy when the discarded bits from periphery are falling into the center, collapsing. Meeting at planets’ surfaces these bits installs the chaos from where will lift also slowly, the flow of order – and the generator machine will be reproduced at that surface. The ants and bees social systems are exactly working copies of these stellar and galactic systems, and like the later, they are condemned forever.

Then, the best we can do is merely watching the chaos becoming slowly an ordered state, naturally? There is no way to avoid the mechanistic “Brave New World”, because this is the best accommodation searched by every human body. Is is necessary to accommodate the body for the health and evolution of “mind” or “consciousness”. This is the reproduction of our surrounding astronomical machine, the body needs to be synchronized with it for being happy.

What we need to avoid is the complement of this terrestrial machine: the Orwellian “Big Brother”. Which is wrong in the name: it is Big Queen, like the star and the bees’ queen. And, I think, the experts that you suggest should be the government, will be just that.

Our problem is that we are two-in-one: a body and a mind. What’s the perfect world for the body, is the bad world for the mind. But with intelligence we could solve this problem: let the stupid and mechanist Brave New World be installed, but, never, the Big Brother ( Queen). An d our mind will not fail slave, will be free for going out and conquering the Cosmos.