Archive for setembro 6th, 2017

Sinapses: Exemplo de prévios design?

quarta-feira, setembro 6th, 2017

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Quando a NASA publicou a foto mais profunda do Universo, muita gente confundiu-a com a imagem do interior do cérebro, pois são quase iguais. E alguns disseram: ” O Universo parece um cérebro!”. O que diriam agora estas pessoas se soubessem o que acabo de descobrir, que as sinapses entre neurônios são evoluções de interações entre astros celestes? Talvez diriam: ” Parece que o Universo também pensa!”

Como a Natureza inventou esta extraordinária engenharia que são as sinapses, devido `as quais nos podemos pensar? As sinapses neuroniais são a base da mente, da consciência. Então a consciência existe como mero produto do acaso, ou existe um Universo tunelado para produzir consciência, a qual já estaria programada a acontecer desde antes do Big Bang?

Agora – quando pesquisadores procuram conhecer as origens e evolução das sinapses – descobrimos que as esponjas, que ainda não tinham nem sequer um sistema nervoso, já tinham os genes ( ou seja, as informações), que mais tarde vieram ser os genes das sinapses (veja links e o texto abaixo). Como a acadêmica visão de mundo explicou isto? Que aqueles genes deveriam estar produzindo outra coisa ( a qual não sabem qual seria), e na evolução foram selecionados quando sua função ficou obsoleta e passaram a executar outra, ou sofreram alguma mutação por acaso. Sim, se os genes estavam la’ é porque estavam com alguma função, pois o DNA não contem genes sem função. E’ possível que a teoria acadêmica esteja correta, e se sim, o sistema nervoso teria surgido por puro acaso, tudo teria começado quando um gene sofreu uma mutação por erro de transcrição e ao invés de fazer sua função passou a fazer outra, a qual justamente iria criar a nossa capacidade de pensar… segundo a teoria acadêmica. Ou não, pois ainda tem gente que não evoluiu mais que o inexistente cérebro das esponjas, pois não param para pensar…

SpongeColorCorrect.jpg

Esponjas (poríferas)

Mas existe outra teoria que acho mais racional ( a qual, segundo a teoria acadêmica, surgiu no meu cérebro por mais uma mutação ao acaso). Para todas as questões sobre qualquer fenômeno e eventos naturais ela tem uma explicação extraída de seus modelos e formulas. Então vamos consultar estes modelos perguntando:

“Existia algum mecanismo/processo no ancestral sistema astronomico onde uma peça tinha a função de ejectar informação, como é o mecanismo dos neurônios ejetando informações pelas sinapses?”

E a resposta da Matrix/DNA é: ” Sim: a F1 e a F4, ejectavam corpos que eram informações para construir as peças e reproduzir o sistema. Portanto, o fenômeno que hoje denominamos de “sinapses” é mera continuidade evolutiva de um especifico mecanismo dos sistemas naturais, dentro da evolução universal. Como pode ser visto nestas representações da formula:

The MatrixDNA as Closed System

The MatrixDNA as Closed System

O Ultimo Ancestral Não-Vivo e Inanimado

O Ultimo Ancestral Não-Vivo e Inanimado

A Matrix/DNA sugere que sistemas são produtos da evolução cosmológica e elabora modelos dos mais complexos sistemas astronômicos sugerindo similar. Então ela indica que idades com sistemas biológicos.  Então ela sugere nestes modelos que já existiam mecanismos, processos, fazendo estas funções de emitir objetos como sinais carregando informações de uma peça para outra. Ora, se isto for correto, os genes com estas informações tinham que ter sido inseridos nos primeiros sistemas biológicos que eram ainda protótipos, ensaios, do que viria a ser a reprodução final do sistema ancestral. “Afinal – conjectura a teoria – babys não tem bigodes porem os genes para produzi-los estão la’ desde a fecundação.”

Então, segundo a Matrix/DNA, para a qual este Universo ‘e como a placenta dentro da qual esta’ sendo gerado um embrião na forma de sistema universal auto-consciente, num mero caso de reprodução genética, a presença da consciência aqui já estava programada antes do Big Bang.

Informações em:

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aai/2010/845723/

Constraints of Biological Neural Networks and Their Consideration in AI Applications

” …  While the functional evolutionary origins of synapses are unclear, recent studies have demonstrated that the genes required to produce proteins necessary for synaptic transmission are found in the genomes of sponges, which lack nervous systems [7]. Therefore, it is probable that synaptic transmission has its origins in exploiting proteins produced for another purpose. While synaptic processing is responsible for the successful functioning of animal nervous systems, it is developed from evolutionary modification of a “best available” solution, and in some cases may be constrained by the slow transmission rates of the process.”

A Post-Synaptic Scaffold at the Origin of the Animal Kingdom

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000506

“Highly conserved protein interaction motifs and co-expression in sponges of multiple proteins whose homologs interact in eumetazoan synapses indicate that a complex protein scaffold was present at the origin of animals, perhaps predating nervous systems. A relatively small number of crucial innovations to this pre-existing structure may represent the founding changes that led to a post-synaptic element”. …. The core potential for evolving synapses in sponges may extend to other types of junctions. As metazoan cell types emerged, both orthologs and paralogs of the genes found here became components of junctions other than synapses as well. Therefore, the set of protosynaptic genes (as well as other genes) might be viewed not as prototypical with regard to synaptic junction evolution, but as a set of genes capable of giving rise to a diversity of junctions.

Wikipedia: Sponges

” Sponges contain genes very similar to those that contain the “recipe” for the post-synaptic density, an important signal-receiving structure in the neurons of all other animals. However, in sponges these genes are only activated in “flask cells” that appear only in larvae and may provide some sensory capability while the larvae are swimming. This raises questions about whether flask cells represent the predecessors of true neurons or are evidence that sponges’ ancestors had true neurons but lost them as they adapted to a sessile lifestyle.”

(neurônios,sinapses,cérebro)

Genética, Epigenética e Doenças: Transcrição do Vídeo

quarta-feira, setembro 6th, 2017

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Questao mencionada no video (“How genotype give rise to phenotype? This is a central problem in Biology”)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHpfkNRscOc

Questões /Informações  no vídeo importantes, classificadas pelo ponto do tempo da palestra ( retirado no transcript no Youtube)
06:30
to solve, a big, a big question if you like, is where DNA, despite being the
06:34
thread of life, you can put it in a tube and gaze, gaze at it for as long as you
06:39
want and it remains utterly dead. So the question is really what does it
06:45
take to make it alive? When Craig Venter synthesized a bacterial
06:50
genome an important synthetic biology milestone, it had to be put into a living
06:55
cell before it became alive. How can one bypass that?
06:58
As the chemists say, you only really understand something if you can make it.
07:03
We can’t actually make life but it would be good to know some of the rules required
07:08
to do that.
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07:17
First of all a basic fact, genes make proteins, here is the chromosome, here is
07:23
the sequence of the genes, there is the RNA.
07:25
It encodes the sequence of the amino acids that lead to the protein that folds up to
07:30
then do all the lifelike things that are required.
07:34
But how are only the right genes expressed in a cell type?
07:36
This has been a question, a long standing question.
07:39
Do we know the answer to it? Why globin is expressed in blood cells and
07:43
keratin is expressed in skin cells, etcetera.
07:46
We, we approximate knowledge about it, but actually, there’s an enormous amount to
07:50
find out.
Matrix/DNA: Isto indica que a diversificação de células e localização de genes específicos em células especificas é mais devido a uma organização do sistema, do organismo como sistema, do que organização individual das células ou genes individuais do DNA. Portanto indica que a formula Matrix inscrita no DNA se projeta como modelo para todo o organismo, e isto deve ser feito por uma network de fótons, uma especie de aura.
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07:50
Most of the genome is actually
07:54
inaccessible. This is this gray, it’s rather difficult
07:57
to look at this picture I think because the DNA is gray and looks although it
08:01
should be in the background but this is a nucleusome, the repeating unit of the, of
08:06
the chromosome, if you like. The fundamental repeating unit.
Matrix/DNA: O autor diz que o nucleosome ( ele diz nucleusome, o que esta errado) e’ a unidade repetitiva do chromossoma, e nao sei se com isso ele quer dizer do DNA. Enquanto a Matrix/DNA sugere que a unidade fundamental do DNA e’ composta de 4 nucleotideos, dois pares laterais e verticais.
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08:08
And the DNA clings to the outside of it. And proteins that want to make genes
08:15
active, can’t actually get at the DNA properly.
08:18
So, how does the gene activation machinery gain and how does it keep access?
08:22
Again, we have some beginning answers to this, but we don’t, by any means, have a
08:28
full picture.
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Protein-coding DNA sequences are only 1%
08:32
of our genome. So, if you look at a piece of the human
08:36
genome, you see these vertical stripes correspond to the bits of this gene that
08:41
are separated from each other. In fact genes are fragmented and they are
08:47
a tiny minority of all the DNA. What is the rest of it for?
08:52
There is an enormous, there’s a vast majority that is, that we can’t explain.
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09:14
It’s particularly after the encode project which found lots of potential regulatory
09:19
sequences throughout here. So, this other DNA is doing stuff.
09:23
And perhaps, it’s doing stuff that makes for example, humans and other mammals far
09:30
more complex than yeast.
Me ocorreu uma ideia agora. Segundo a formula, o tal junk DNA são registros da Matrix do passado, de antes da abiogeneses ate’ o Big Bang. Nesse caso, são registros do ambiente externo a um sistema biológico, pois este nem existia ainda. Mas depois do inicio da abiogeneses, nestes 4 bilhões de anos, a galaxia, o universo mudou, evoluiu, ao menos ficou diferente porque se expandiu. E desta macro-dimensão devem checar fótons `a Terra, por radiação cósmica. Ora, fótons procuram e se juntam com seus vizinhos de outrora, como qualquer imigrante em pais novo. Estaria então sendo acrescentados ao DNA humano, mais exatamente entre as bases do junk DNA, os registros da Matrix a nível macrocósmico? Parece ficção, e curiosos que isto ressuscitaria o adagio antigo de que temos o universo dentro de nos.
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09:30
more complex than yeast. So finally, there are questions almost
09:37
sociological questions. Does the environment have any impact on
09:40
gene expression?
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Como surgiu “epigenetics”, qual a definicao:

10:25
The original epigenetics definition comes from Conrad Waddington, who was actually
10:31
my predecessor as Buchanan Chair, Chair, Chair of Genetics in Edinburgh.
10:36
And what he meant was in contrast to pre-formationism, but the development
10:43
proceeded by the gradual unfolding of the information in the genes, to produce the
10:46
whole organism. So, for him, how information of the genes
10:50
is read during embryo, during embryonic development to give the whole organism was
10:54
the essence of what epigenetics was about. We would now call this developmental
10:59
biology. How the genotype gives rise to the
11:01
phenotype. But it’s acquired, or a sort of, a special
11:05
status in epigenetics, really, because of this iconic picture, the epigenetic
11:11
landscape. I’m not going to dwell on this either.
11:13
Because quite honestly, having had it explained to me several times, I’m never
11:16
totally sure, exactly how this helps.
Second definition of epigenetics which is rather different has actually different
11:41
origins epistemological origins. How characteristics are inherited across
11:48
cells or organism generations without changes in the DNA, its sequence, itself.
11:53
An example of this is this cat, the so-called tortoise shell cat, or calico
11:58
cat, in, in, in the US, which has these patches of fur.
12:02
It has two x chromosomes. One of them has a gene that gives black
12:06
fur, the other one has a gene that gives orange fur, and cells early in
12:11
development, inactivate one or the other of those chromosomes for, for reasons we
12:14
don’t, which I will, I will come back to actually, a little bit later.
12:18
And you get a patch of skin because the cell that originally inactivated the
12:22
orange fur gene gave rise when it divided to cells that did exactly the same thing.
12:28
So, that was inherited. All the gene or the, the DNA is still
12:32
there in these cells, in, in the orange ones, and the black ones, but there is
12:37
difference that is inherited and that’s epigenetic according to this definition.
12:43
So, heritable traits of this kind might be influenced by the environment.
12:48
And this is sort of revitalized that an ancient argument about nature versus
12:55
nurture, where nature is genetics, the idea that we’re, our genes are, are in
12:59
control and nurture is the opposite, the idea that our environment determines who
13:03
we are.Of course, it’s a mixture of both but
13:07
epigenetics has given a, a, a new lease of life to the nurture argument.
13:12
And so, one can see articles such as this and there are many examples I could have
13:17
chosen why your DNA isn’t your destiny, the new science of epigenetics reveals how
13:23
choices you make can change your genes and those of your kids.
13:27
Now, I’m not an expert on some of the epidemiology behind this, but the, the
13:32
molecular biology, in my opinion, is far less convincing than it is for other
13:35
aspects of epigenetics. It is, however, an extremely interesting
13:40
idea, that the environment can give rise to changes that get passed on, but it is
13:45
systematically overstated in a lot of places one finds it described.
13:49
So, one has to be circumspect about the, this kind of argument in my opinion.
13:54
There are couple of excellent examples in plants, in worms where immune, immunity is
14:00
involved, but some of the more sociological aspects, in my opinion,
14:05
require further evidence. So, I’m sticking with this as my example
14:09
of heritable epigenetics. It’s closer to the molecular biology we
14:12
actually understand. So, Epigenetics 3, biological significance…
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17:04
disease. So, epigenetics then embraces key unsolved
17:09
problems in Biology, how, how the genotype give rise to phenotype, that’s the
17:12
Waddington one, how traits are inherited across cell or organism generations
17:17
without changes in the DNA sequence and how structural adaptation of the genome
17:21
facilitates gene activity programs. As far as I’m concerned, this is not a
17:26
word one needs to dwell on with sort of almost a theological interest about what
17:34
it means.
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17:39
And I, I like to think of it as how the genome is organized and managed to make
17:43
DNA if you like, come alive.
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Sobre CG islands:
 In fact, for a long time, we were used to
26:00
the fact that CG islands existed, but we didn’t really know what they were for.
26:04
And, and actually, one almost forgot to ask, well, they’re always there, what are
26:08
they for? In fact, it now seems very likely that
26:11
they are platforms to set up appropriate genome structures at gene promoters.
26:16
Very important function. And there are other proteins that bind CG,
26:21
that recruit other things to them, and this is a very, a rapidly growing area.
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Experiencia Cientifica sugerida pela Matrix/DNA para reproduzir a origem da vida.

quarta-feira, setembro 6th, 2017

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Um leitor postou uma observacao a qual me levou a articular uma ideia que surgiu lendo os mapas da Matrix mas faltava repensa-la e escreve-la. O debate esta em:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xyhZcEY5PCQ&lc=z22nvpyztnakelq23acdp43auu4tt0itfximci13i4pw03c010c.1504669497530191

Louis Charles Morelli – 9/6/2-17

Mega.Dope.Beatz says : “The Miller Experiment was debunked decades ago,” He didn’t get the right amino-acids for life?

My answer:  It is because his reduced state of the world was based on Oparin astronomic model, which didn’t know 5% of what we know now. We need to repeat the experiment changing the model and, for example, Matrix/DNA theoretical astronomic model is suggesting this change but then, the important ingredient is photons from stellar, planetary nuclear and cosmic radiations. We have no technological tools for doing it yet.
Louis Charles Morelli basically, but a matrix is a mathematical structure, a 2 dimensional array, so I can’t understand everything that you are trying to say.
Mega.Dope.Beatz – This theory is suggesting a new astronomical model different from the standard academic current model. And this model is suggesting how biological systems (aka, “life”) are merely evolutionary product from the evolution of LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor) which never existed at Earth, but Earth belongs to it, since this LUCA is an astronomical system. The experiment suggested by this theory involves changes in the ingredients used by Miller/Urey and bombardment not by electricity, but by photons captured free in the atmosphere. Matrix as the name of this theory is not about the Math definition. It is more likely the common definition as ” an array of circuit elements (parts of a system) for performing a specific function as system”. It is a formula that can be written as a software diagram ( you can see it with Google: “The Universal Matrix of Natural Systems”. Cheers…