A descoberta de uma super-enzima e sua relacao com a forca que controla a evolucao

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Estou entrando numa nova dimensao da Natureza de importancia grandiosa. E o artigo copiado abaixo para ser pesquisado aqui em cada informacao, esta relacionado ao assunto.

Ainda nao fasso ideia de como seria nem o esboco dessa nova dimensao. Mas existem evidencias, ela e’ logica, esta escudada em parametro natural conhecido.

Quando na embriogenese esta sendo construido um novo ser, parece que existe algo como um commando de instrucoes invisivel no DNA coordenando as atividades dos genes. Parece um maestro dirigindo uma orquestra. Mas sao milhares de genes ( cerca de 30.000?), e cada qual tem uma informacao unica, especifica dele. Entao seria uma orquestra com 30.000 musicos mas cada um tem um instrument unico, especifico, que emite um som diferente de todos os outros. O maestro coordena de maneira que cada instrumento entre num dado momento, e que em cada momento existe um grupo selecionado tocando. O gene que tem informacao para fazer algo do nariz ja estara a postos no momento seguinte a fecundacao, como todos os demais, mas ele tera que esperar inativo, sem se expressar, ate que os outros genes fassam a cabeca. E o artigo abaixo sugere como e’ compost o commando de instrucoes (o maestro) do DNA. Enzimas catalizadoras.

Sim, mas onde esta a nova dimensao do conhecimento? Como escrevi num artigo aqui ontem, as vidas dos humanos estao sendo “controladas” a nivel de Humanidade, de sistemas sociais, ou talvez mesmo a nivel inconsciente, por um semlhante invisivel e desconhecido commando de instrucoes.nao apenas a vida dos humanos, mas sim, a evolucao biologica de bilhoes de anos tem sido dirigida por esse comando misterioso. E as regras sao as mesmas que ocorrem com os genes. Isso cheira `a metafisica, ‘e quase impossivel, mas uma serie de detalhes me levam a suspeitar que isso nao apenas seria possivel, como de fato, deve estar ocorrendo.

Uma das possibilidades seria explicada por outra sub-teoria dentro da geral teoria da Matrix/DNA: a de que os 8 bilhoes de humanos sao 8 bilhoes de genes inconscientes cada qual carregando em suas cabecas uma particular de informacao unica, especifica, diferente de todas as demais, na forma de sua mente, construindo aqui uma nova forma do sistema natural universal, a qual denominamos ” auto-consciencia”. Se isto for verdade, tem que ter um commando central invisivel tal como tem no DNA.

Mas tem outra situacao, uma quase identica situacao. A teoria geral da Matrix/DNA esta sugerindo que, em paralelo a esta funcao de genes para uma auto-consciencia, tambem somos genes cnstruindo uma replica do nosso criador imediato e ancestral sistema astronomico. uer dizer, nao apenas os humanos, mas sim todos os sistemas biologicos dessa biosfera. Seriam duas tendencias conflitantes entre si, uma imediatamente materialista, obedecendo a evolucao de um hardware que vem se complexificando desde o Big Bang, e a outra, apesar de ser perfeitamente natural tambem, tem uma conotacao mais metafisica, pois estariamos construindo uma reproducao de algo que jaz alem deste Universo. Neste caso, o maestro seria inimaginavel por nos.

No roteiro da nossa evolucao era imprescindivel que o homem descobrisse como fazer o fogo, para dai fazer os metais e sua tecnologia. Coube a uma lendasugerir como isso ocorreu, metaforicamente falando, claro. Ptometeu condenado junto com Sisifoa rolar uma pedra morro acima ate que conseguissem coloca-la no pico do Monte Olimpo. A certo momento Prometeu desiste de rolar a pedra e ao inves vai furtivamente pelo lado escuro da montanha, sobe-a, alcanca o pico, e nao tendo mais o que fazer ali, rouba a tocha do fogo do trono de Zeus. teria chegado o momento certo do maestro mandar o gene para fogo entrar em acao. Nao poderia ter sido antes porque a humanidade nao estava preparada e nao podia ser muito tarde porque a humanidade poderia sucumbir antes. Seja como for, as enzimas catalizadoras fazem jutamente isso com os genes na embriogenese.

E seja como for, ja esperando que va perder meu tempo e de em nada, eu vou procurar se existe um maestro oculto  e quais suas forssas catalizadoras atuando sobre o conjunto da humanidade. nao espero encontrar o maestro relacionado a reproducao da auto-consciencia, pois isto seria muita pretensao, porem, se houver um maestro dirifgindo a reproducao da galaxia a nivel biologico, nos podemos encontra-lo. E esta super-enzima mencionada neste artigo sera uma das pistas a serem investigadas.

(obs:v oltar ao artigo da phys.org e ver varios outros artigos relacionados a este tema)

http://m.phys.org/news/2016-09-scientists-super-enzyme-dna.html

 Scientists discover how ‘super enzyme’ speeds up DNA repair

September 5, 2016
Credit: Medical Research Council

Scientists from the University of Sussex have discovered how an enzyme, known as PARP3, helps to accelerate the repair of DNA.

In the body, mutations can arise from DNA damage that is not repaired properly, leading to disease, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. New research funded by the MRC and Cancer Research UK, led by the laboratories of Professor Keith Caldecott and Professor Laurence Pearl at the University of Sussex’s Genome Damage and Stability Centre, has identified how the PARP3, short for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 3, recognises and signals the presence of broken DNA strands.

Research has shown that the PARP3 enzyme is involved in the DNA repair process and helps to maintain the integrity of the genetic code, but until now the precise DNA repair activation mechanism triggered by the enzyme was unclear.

Using multi-disciplinary expertise, Sussex scientists have identified the specific steps involved in activating the DNA repair process. When the PARP3 enzyme locates a specific site of DNA damage, it ‘marks’ the damaged DNA with a molecular signal.

This signal is created via a chemical change, involving the addition of a molecule called ‘ADP-ribose’ to the DNA. The DNA is packaged up in a complex called ‘chromatin’ which contains proteins; the team found that the PARP3 enzyme adds the ‘ADP-ribose’ molecule to one of these proteins – ‘histone H2B’.

By marking the precise site of damage the enzyme flags the problem up to specialised DNA repair enzymes that will move in to repair the damage, protecting the cell from potentially dangerous DNA breaks.

The researchers believe this is a vital step towards understanding how DNA breaks are detected, signalled, and repaired, which could in the future enable scientists to create drugs which can better target certain cancers.

PARP3 is one of a superfamily of enzymes that are targeted by PARP inhibitor drugs, a new class drugs used to treat hereditary cancer, including ovarian and breast cancer. Knowledge of how the PARP3 enzyme activates DNA repair will also contribute to improving the understanding, and targeting, of PARP inhibitor drugs.

The research, which took place over four years, also involved nuclear magnetic resonance expertise in Professor Steve Matthews’ group at Imperial College, London, proteomics in the lab of Dr Steve Sweet in Sussex and chromatin biology in the lab of Dr Alan Thorne at the University of Portsmouth.

Professor Keith Caldecott, who led the study, said: “This discovery highlights the value of multi-disciplinary collaborations, combining molecular and cellular biology with biochemistry and structural biology. As a result of working together, we have been able to identify how PARP3 recognises and flags the presence of broken DNA.

“This will be important for our understanding of how cells protect themselves from potentially dangerous DNA breaks. It will also help to provide insight into the mechanisms of action of a new class of PARP inhibitory anti-cancer drugs.”

Ver tambem este outro artigo relacionado ( mas estarei escrevendo outro artigo para isto pois se trata da origem da vida):

New knowledge about the building blocks of life

September 2, 2016

http://phys.org/news/2016-09-knowledge-blocks-life.html

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-09-knowledge-blocks-life.html#jCp

Pesquisa:

PARP3, short for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 3

Enzyme (definicao em http://phys.org/tags/enzyme/

Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. However, certain RNA molecules can be effective biocatalysts too. These RNA molecules have come to be known as ribozymes. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, called the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea or ΔG‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions. A few RNA molecules called ribozymes catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome. Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity. Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. Activity is also affected by temperature, chemical environment (e.g., pH), and the concentration of substrate. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. In addition, some household products use enzymes to speed up biochemical reactions (e.g., enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes; enzymes in meat tenderizers break down proteins, making the meat easier to chew).

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Dados tecnicos e modelo deste gene no Genome Databank:

Human Gene PARP3 (ENST00000431474.5) Description and Page Index

http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgGene?db=hg38&hgg_gene=PARP3

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Wikipedia:

Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PARP3 gene.

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PARP family. These enzymes modify nuclear proteins by poly-ADP-ribosylation, which is required for DNA repair, regulation of apoptosis, and maintenance of genomic stability. This gene encodes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase 3, which is preferentially localized to the daughter centriole throughout the cell cycle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes involving mainly DNA repair and programmed cell death. ( cont a ler)

 

 

 

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