Cérebro: Desenvolvimento do Cortex

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A Tiny Change With Considerable Consequences

http://neurosciencenews.com/neocortex-evolution-5715/

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Pesquisa:

Googlando “basal progenitors”

papers relacionados:

Dev Neurosci. 2008;30(1-3):24-32.

Role of intermediate progenitor cells in cerebral cortex development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075251

Abstract

Intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) are a type of neurogenic transient amplifying cells in the developing cerebral cortex. IPCs divide symmetrically at basal (abventricular) positions in the neuroepithelium to produce pairs of new neurons or, in amplifying divisions, pairs of new IPCs. In contrast, radial unit progenitors (neuroepithelial cells and radial glia) divide at the apical (ventricular) surface and produce only single neurons or single IPCs by asymmetric division, or self-amplify by symmetric division. Histologically, IPCs are most prominent during the middle and late stages of neurogenesis, when they accumulate in the subventricular zone, a progenitor compartment linked to the genesis of upper neocortical layers (II-IV). Nevertheless, IPCs are present throughout cortical neurogenesis and produce neurons for all layers. In mice, changes in the abundance of IPCs caused by mutations of Pax6, Ngn2, Id4 and other genes are associated with parallel changes in cortical thickness but not surface area. In gyrencephalic brains, IPCs may play broader roles in determining not only laminar thickness, but also cortical surface area and gyral patterns. We propose that regulation of IPC genesis and amplification across developmental stages and regional subdivisions modulates laminar neurogenesis and contributes to the cytoarchitectonic differentiation of cortical areas

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Cereb Cortex. 2009 Oct;19(10):2439-50. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhn260. Epub 2009 Jan 23.

Intermediate neuronal progenitors (basal progenitors) produce pyramidal-projection neurons for all layers of cerebral cortex.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168665

 Abstract

The developing cerebral cortex contains apical and basal types of neurogenic progenitor cells. Here, we investigated the cellular properties and neurogenic output of basal progenitors, also called intermediate neuronal progenitors (INPs). We found that basal mitoses expressing transcription factor Tbr2 (an INP marker) were present throughout corticogenesis, from embryonic day 10.5 through birth. Postnatally, Tbr2(+) progenitors were present in the dentate gyrus, subventricular zone (SVZ), and posterior periventricle (pPV). Two morphological subtypes of INPs were distinguished in the embryonic cortex, “short radial” in the ventricular zone (VZ) and multipolar in the SVZ, probably corresponding to molecularly defined INP subtypes. Unexpectedly, many short radial INPs appeared to contact the apical (ventricular) surface and some divided there. Time-lapse video microscopy suggested that apical INP divisions produced daughter INPs. Analysis of neurogenic divisions (Tis21-green fluorescent protein [GFP](+)) indicated that INPs may produce the majority of projection neurons for preplate, deep, and superficial layers. Conversely, proliferative INP divisions (Tis21-GFP(-)) increased from early to middle corticogenesis, concomitant with SVZ growth. Our findings support the hypothesis that regulated amplification of INPs may be an important factor controlling the balance of neurogenesis among different cortical layers.

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