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Categoria: Cérebro

( Este artigo traz importantes informações sôbre o cérebro e Alzheimer (ver comentários a seguir e outros artigos derivados daqui). A Teoria da Matriz está lidando com o cérebro também e sua opinião por enquanto é:

Existe outro método para obter os mesmos resultados, mais prático e fácil, segundo a Teoria da Matriz/DNA. Ao invés do método reducionista de lidar com uma célula após outra, entre milhões, bilhões delas que formam o cérebro, a fórmula/software da Matriz/DNA  possibilita lidar com o cérebro como um todo, fazendo com que conexões entre seus principais sub-sistemas, como hipocampo, pineal, etc., sejam conduzidos a funcionar como um sistema perfeito. O próprio sistema corrige, muda, desloca, as células disfuncionais. Não quero tirar o mérito desta pesquisa e método, ele tem que continuar, mas o caminho pelas “células tronco” está se mostrando muito dificil, e outras alternativas tambem devem serem experimentadas).

Reprogramming Stem Cells

Mar – 04 – 2011

Published by Steven Novella under Neuroscience,Science and Medicine

Just a quick entry today – researchers have coaxed neural stem cells to differentiate into basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. These neurons are important in memory, and are affected in dementias like Alzheimer’s disease.

This represents a core technological aspect of using stem cells – the ability to make them turn into the kind of cells that are needed. It is not the only hurdle to stem cell therapies, however. Researchers also need to get the cells where they are needed, to get them to survive, and to not form cancers or tumors. In some cases it may also be necessary for the cells to form meaningful connections – this is especially true when replacing neurons in the brain.

So while this in an important advance, we are not there yet.

However – stem cells are useful beyond their direct therapeutic potential. The ability to make these specific kinds of neurons can be used in research, where having a ready supply of cells in a petri dish is highly useful. So this technique can accelerate research, even if it does not have a direct application itself.

Also, stem cells (even neuronal stem cells) can be therapeutically useful even if they are not able to make meaningful connections – network with surrounding neurons. Neurons, or more likely glial cells, that are genetically modified from stem cells can be implanted and used as drug delivery systems, or to alter the environment for native cells. This approach could potentially slow, stop, or compensate for various diseases. This application would also be much easier than getting the cells to network – because all they have to do is survive and metabolize, creating whatever substances are desired and dumping them into their surroundings.

The press release for this story also mentions unpublished research in which the scientists have been able to take adult skin cells and convert them into stem cells and then into neurons – skin cells to neurons.

This is certainly an exciting technology. We are just getting to the point where the earliest applications of this kind of stem cell therapy are within sight. But we are not quite there yet – so the public still needs to be aware that stem cell clinics promising to treat ALS or Alzheimer’s disease (not as part of an approved research protocol, but as a paid treatment) are fraudulent and should be avoided.

7 Responses to “Reprogramming Stem Cells”

# Skeptical Atheiston 04 Mar 2011 at 8:57 am

Amazing, thanks. We are living in an important point of history, we are growing more into oneness and love.

Someday a cure for Alzheimer’s disease will be found. And Souls that choose to incarnate on planet earth will be able to accomplish what they came here to do ( to grow into oneness and love) without having bodies that are ridden with cancer, alzheimers and all the other sad diseases.

In the mean time we have to ensure that people afflicted with these diseases are given unconditional love and compassion and always reminded that they are eternal spiritual beings that are temporarily occupying a human body.

Death is not the End, Death is merely the movement from one plane of existence to another.

We will all be embraced by the loving light where we will meet our loved ones again.

Death is not the end. Oblivion is a myth just like creationism.

Life/Love is eternal.

Love and Peace 

# Heinleineron 04 Mar 2011 at 9:21 am

All those others myths are myths, except mine! Hatred is eternal. Hatred and nihilism 

# mrwilson41on 04 Mar 2011 at 10:44 am

For my friends and family who argue with me about the ethics of stem cell research, I usually find they don’t know what stem cells are. I have often referred them to Dr. Greg Forbes hour lecture, which may be found here: – Awesome stuff!

# SARAon 04 Mar 2011 at 12:24 pm

I am really curious about this concept of using the cell to deliver the treatment drug. I can’t figure out how that would work. Does anyone know of a quick summary of that idea?

Thank you for the link Mrwilson41, I have also had those conversations. The media coverage seems to have conflated stem cells and abortions in the minds of people who don’t want to look into the subject.

# sonicon 04 Mar 2011 at 4:25 pm


this article will probably help.

# BillyJoe7on 04 Mar 2011 at 10:50 pm SA,

A little present for you:

“Science is where beautiful theories are killed by ugly facts, or proved by them.”  


Well, this present is more like a kick in the knickerbockers.


Northwestern University

Public release date: 4-Mar-2011

Human stem cells transformed into key neurons lost in Alzheimer’s

Discovery may lead to new drugs and neuron transplantation for Alzheimer’s

CHICAGO — Northwestern Medicine researchers for the first time have transformed a human embryonic stem cell into a critical type of neuron that dies early in Alzheimer’s disease and is a major cause of memory loss.

This new ability to reprogram stem cells and grow a limitless supply of the human neurons will enable a rapid wave of drug testing for Alzheimer’s disease, allow researchers to study why the neurons die and could potentially lead to transplanting the new neurons into people with Alzheimer’s. The paper will be published March 4 in the journal Stem Cells. These critical neurons, called basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, help the hippocampus retrieve memories in the brain. In early Alzheimer’s, the ability to retrieve memories is lost, not the memories themselves. There is a relatively small population of these neurons in the brain, and their loss has a swift and devastating effect on the ability to remember.

“Now that we have learned how to make these cells, we can study them in a tissue culture dish and figure out what we can do to prevent them from dying,” said senior study author Jack Kessler, M.D., chair of neurology and the Davee Professor of Stem Cell Biology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital.

The lead author of the paper is Christopher Bissonnette, a former doctoral student in neurology who labored for six years in Kessler’s lab to crack the genetic code of the stem cells to produce the neurons. His research was motivated by his grandfather’s death from Alzheimer’s.

“This technique to produce the neurons allows for an almost infinite number of these cells to be grown in labs, allowing other scientists the ability to study why this one population of cells selectively dies in Alzheimer’s disease,” Bissonnette said.

The ability to make the cells also means researchers can quickly test thousands of different drugs to see which ones may keep the cells alive when they are in a challenging environment. This rapid testing technique is called high-throughput screening.

Kessler and Bissonnette demonstrated the newly produced neurons work just like the originals. They transplanted the new neurons into the hippocampus of mice and showed the neurons functioned normally. The neurons produced axons, or connecting fibers, to the hippocampus and pumped out acetylcholine, a chemical needed by the hippocampus to retrieve memories from other parts of the brain.

Human skin cells transformed into stem cells and then neurons

In new, unpublished research, Northwestern Medicine scientists also have discovered a second novel way to make the neurons. They made human embryonic stem cells (called induced pluripotent stem cells) from human skin cells and then transformed these into the neurons.

Scientists made these stem cells and neurons from skin cells of three groups of people: Alzheimer’s patients, healthy patients with no family history of Alzheimer’s, and healthy patients with an increased likelihood of developing the disease due to a family history of Alzheimer’s because of genetic mutations or unknown reasons.

“This gives us a new way to study diseased human Alzheimer’s cells,” Kessler said. “These are real people with real disease. That’s why it’s exciting.”

Researcher motivated by his grandfather’s Alzheimer’s disease

Bissonnette’s persistence in the face of often frustrating research was fueled by the childhood memory of watching his grandfather die from Alzheimer’s. “I watched the disease slowly and relentlessly destroy his memory and individuality, and I was powerless to help him,” Bissonnette recalled. “That drove me to become a scientist. I wanted to discover new treatments to reverse the damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease.”

“My goal was to make human stem cells become new healthy replacement cells so that they could one day be transplanted into a patient’s brain, helping their memory function again,” he said.

Bissonnette had to grow and test millions of cells to figure out how to turn on the exact sequence of genes to transform the stem cell into the cholinergic neuron.

“A stem cell has the potential to become virtually any cell in the body, from a heart cell to a layer of skin,” he explained. “Its development is caused by a cascade of things that slowly bump it into a final cell type.”

But it wasn’t enough just to develop the neurons. Bissonnette then had to learn how to stabilize them so they lived for at least 20 days in order to prove they were the correct cells.

“Since this was brand new research, people didn’t know what kind of tissue culture mature human neurons would like to live in,” he said. “Once we figured it out, they could live indefinitely.”


The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health.



Relacionado a Alzheimer:

Study: Overeating Linked to Memory Loss in Elderly

Updated: Feb 13, 2012 7:46 PM EST

New research shows overeating can increase the elderly’s risk of memory loss.

This new study shows older people who eat 2,100 or more calories a day had more than double the risk of memory loss compared to people who ate fewer than 1,500 calories a day.

And experts say the more calories older people consume, the more likely they are to have what’s called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI.

Doctors say MCI is the transition between normal forgetfulness caused by aging and early Alzheimer’s disease.

Symptoms of MCI sometimes interfere with day-to-day life.

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