– “… isto é uma batata frita?”
– “ Não, bocó, isto é um extraterrestre!”
( A mente humana está sendo obrigada a se ampliar, crescer, vencer os limites e fronteiras do planeta e da vida biológica para se estabelecer no espaço sideral e tornar-se uma unica e final mente universal, quando o Universo finalmente adquirirá sua auto-consciência de sua própria existência e se transcenderá, nascerá para outro mundo, talvez onde nos aguarda de braços abertos um casal onde sua parte feminina esteja grávida, no dia do Big Birth. Isto é o que sugerem os modêlos da Teoria da Matriz/DNA, e isto foi o que me fêz despertar um amor apaixonado pela Humanidade inteira, pois cada ser humano, o mais simples que existe, é uma parcela de mim, e devo ajuda-la, trata-la com todo cuidado, pois de sua facilidade na vida e desenvolvimento perfeito dependerá a perfeição e saúde do meu corpo mental no futuro. Nêsse processo temos ultimamente sendo acossados pela idéia de que não somos os unicos vivos no mundo, a Terra está sendo bombardeada por meteóritos e êstes estão sendo captados por sondas humanas, e nêstes meteóritos estamos descobrindo que, colado nêles, existem moléculas bioquimicas e até sistemas bioquimicos organizados, como indica a foto acima. A NASA está investindo pesado nesta busca, mas o problema, quando me baseio na cosmovisão da Matrix/DNA, é que o modêlo cosmológico e entendimento do Cosmos sugeridos pela teoria acadêmica oficial mais aceita no meio cientifico está com alguns êrros, e isto está prejudicando esta pesquisa, tornando-a muito mais lenta, gastando-se mais inutilmente, e sendo desviada da realidade. A sugestão de meus modêlos é unica e desconhecida para êles: a Vida, tal como a vemos nêste planeta, nada mais é que a continuação evolutiva da evolução anterior, cosmológica, atômica, primordial, e qualquer sistema estelar com as suficientes e necessárias condições emite bits-informação na forma de fótons que carregam o código astronomico semi-biológico, e uma vez na superficie de qualquer planeta, nestas condições, pode gerar os sistemas biológicos (os seres vivos) em vários pontos do planeta. Alguns sistemas não apresentam perfeitas condições mas de qualquer maneira desenvolve algumas espécies, e isto resulta no que o cientista diz abaixo: formas de vida diferentes de tudo que vemos na Terra. Estou estudando com atenção o “paper” publicado pelos cientistas no Journal of Cosmogy e emocionando-me por ver vários ítens comprovando o que meus modêlos preveram a 25 anos atrás. Por exemplo, que todos os exemplares organicos extraterrestres apresentam apenas 8 tipos de aminoácidos, quando a Vida é constituída por 20 tipos. Ora meus modêlos sugeriam que se a vida principia prematuramente em velhos planetas, novos pulsares, ou em cometas produzidos nestes astros, ela deve se estabilizar apenas com a metade das informações do código genético, relativa à meia-face esquerda da Matriz/DNA. E pelo que diz os artigos, desconfiam que os meteóritos vieram de cometas. Ora, a presença da metade dos aminoacidos indica justamente isso! Outra informação é que mediram temperaturas do nucleo de cometas e descobriram que os nucleos tem regiões quentes ! Na base de 350 graus Kelvin! Quando expus os modêlos da Matriz/DNA um dos assuntos mais criticados foi essa sugestão que seus nucleos já foram quentes um dia, ou se o cometa ainda é novo deve ser ainda quente, pois todas as teorias na época afirmavam que o nucleo de cometas seria gêlo. Eu não quero acreditar na cosmovisão da Teoria da Matriz/DNA mas não tem como me desviar dela, ela agarra como carrapato, e cada vez que a Ciência descobre algo novo ela me dá um beliscão e sussurra: “Eu não disse?”
O trecho seguinte é meu comentário postado em alguns blogs que veicularam esta noticia:
Sinto muito mas posso estar trazendo uma má notícia: vocês com educação acadêmica podem terem sido enganados a respeito como funciona êste mundo. Da mesma forma que todos os estudantes antes de Copérnico foram enganados a verem o mundo ao contrário.
Resolver o mistério sôbre as origens da Vida hoje é mais um trabalho para detetives filósofos do que laboratorial, aplicando o mesmo método de Watson e Crick para decifrar o código genético. Pois agora trata-se de identificar e decifrar o código cósmico que evoluiu e gerou o código genético. Vocês não estão fazendo isso porque separaram a Evolução Cosmológica da Evolução Biológica, criando dois blocos da História Universal sem conexão alguma entre êles, interpondo um abismo entre os dois que foi preenchido pela doutrina do Acaso Absoluto.
Meu método nesta tentativa de detetive filósofo foi a anatomia comparada entre as duas evoluções, entre sistemas naturais vivos e não-vivos, e o resultado que está sob testes por enquanto, está na Teoria “A Matriz Universal dos Sistemas Naturais e Ciclos Vitais” em cujo website estou publicando as evidências encontradas a cada dia. E segundo indicam estes resultados, rápidamente tenho os seguintes comentários sôbre o tema:
1) A Vida pode emergir em muitos astros e em vários pontos diferentes de um mesmo astro. O problema do Dr. Hoover é sua crença na panspermia, a qual aponta para uma unica origem da Vida e seu posterior espalhamento pelo Cosmos. Acontece que os sistemas biológicos (aka seres vivos) são meras continuidades evolutivas dos sistemas naturais anteriores, e o mais evoluído antes da primeira célula era o sistema galáctico, portanto nêste está o principio do código que evoluiu para o DNA, conforme indica o diagrama/software em meu website. Tôda galaxia tem este código como organizador de sua estrutura e portanto tôda galaxia pode gerar a Vida. E isto implica em vida sob muitas origens em muitos pontos diferentes.
2) O fato de que todas as amostras creditadas como vida extraterrestre apresentarem apenas 8 dos 20 aminoacidos necessarios para a vida terrestre e a possibilidade de que estas amostras vieram de cometas confirma a minha teoria da Matriz/DNA. Cometas, ao contrário do que a teoria Acadêmica Nebular está sugerindo, são produzidos pela emissão no espaço de magma provenientes de gigantes vulcões em planetas velhos sendo transformados em pulsares. Como eles carregam apenas metade do código cósmico, apenas podem produzir protótipos de sistemas biológicos e com a metade dos aminoacidos relacionados à meia-face esquerda da Matriz/DNA.
3) A revelação no “paper” do Dr. Hoover de que nucleos de cometas apresentam regiões quentes (350 graus K) é consagração de mais uma das previsões dos modêlos registrados a 25 anos atrás da Teoria da Matriz/DNA, quando fui criticado por muitos devido a teoria acadêmica afirmar que este nucleo seria congelado.
4) Por meu lado eu estou muito satisfeito e animado que cientistas de coragem e muito trabalho como o Dr. Hoover esteja em atividade. Ele está lutando contra as barreiras das crenças predominantes e pode estar abrindo mais as portas para a evolução do conhecimento humano.
Atenciosamente, Louis Morelli, New York, USA
Vejamos artigos relacionados (alguém aí tem tempo para traduzir os textos em inglês para português e vice-versa? Por favor!)
NASA Offers Proof Of Alien Life
A NASA scientist has come to the surprising conclusion that alien life exists, and even has the fossils of it to back the claims up.
The alleged fossil shown in the picture above was found in a meteorite by Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist with NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, cracked open the meteorite in a totally sterile lab, and using an electron microscope took the image above, which certainly does look like bacteria. In fact, Dr Hoover noted that it looked surprisingly similar to the giant bacterium Titanospirillum velox, an organism found here on planet Earth.
I interpret it as indicating that life is more broadly distributed than restricted strictly to the planet earth. This field of study has just barely been touched — because quite frankly, a great many scientist would say that this is impossible.
Dr Hoover speaking with FoxNews.com
Some of the supposed fossils found in the research look very similar to ones we have here on Earth, while he says that others are totally alien and look nothing like anything we have ever seen before. Many people often assume alien life will be remotely similar to Earths life, or totally different, but rarely not both.
The exciting thing is that they are in many cases recognizable and can be associated very closely with the generic species here on earth. There are some that are just very strange and don’t look like anything that I’ve been able to identify, and I’ve shown them to many other experts that have also come up stumped.
Dr Hoover speaking with FoxNews.com
Dr Hoover spoke with Fox News about the discovery, although the report itself is not actually new, in fact it was published in a paper by NASA back in 2007 . It is surprising that this was not picked up on earlier, now that a major news source has picked up on it, the story is quickly gaining momentum in the media. The final article is to be published in the March addition of the Journal Of Cosmology. When officially published, this paper will be heavily scrutinized, people will try and deny it or prove it wrong, and it will be exciting to see what the consensus of opinion is.
This is not the first time people have claimed to have found fossilized life in a meteorite from Mars, although this was never confirmed and the supposed fossil did not look quite as convincing as this one.
If provable, this could change the way we explore space forever, we would no longer be looking for whether microbial life can exist elsewhere, but instead we will be looking to find out where it is from. It would be even more exciting for the prospects of the universal alien life if it were ever determined that this possible alien microbe was from somewhere else in our own solar system, as two occurrences of life in one solar system would mean that we can be near certain of life elsewhere and it might not be as rare as once thought.
Not only this, but if we want to send manned missions to other planets, moons and asteroids in the future, we will have to be extremely careful in doing so, careful to protect the crew from anything that could be harmful, but just as important is the protection of any potential ecosystems of microbes or more advanced life.
It shocks me that it has taken over 3 years for this story to get wide attention even though the work hasn’t been officially published yet, I’d have thought the media would have jumped on this from the go; now that the cat is out of the unsealed bag, what an exciting development, perhaps this is the first alien ever seen by mankind, it may not be a green man in a flying saucer on the lawn of the white house, but to us here at Spaceosaur, it is just as amazing if real.
Microfossils of Cyanobacteria in the Orgueil Carbonaceous Meteorite
Richard B. Hoover, BSc
During the past decade, Scanning Electron Microscopy investigations at NASA/MSFC and NSSTC have resulted in the detection of embedded coccoidal and filamentous forms in freshly fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. Many of these forms have sizes and morphologies consistent with well-known genera and species of Cyanobacteria. Similar forms have never been detected in any of the stony chondrites, achondrites, diogenites, nickel-iron meteorites or lunar samples studied. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and 2D maps indicate that these filaments in Orgueil are permineralized with magnesium sulfate, encased within carbon-rich sheaths and depleted in Nitrogen. Many of the large and complex forms are polarized filaments that exhibit highly differentiated and specialized cells for nitrogen fixation (heterocysts) and reproduction (hormogonia, akinetes and baeocytes). High-resolution images will be presented to show that the Orgueil filaments are biological in origin and can be interpreted as morphotypes of all known Orders of Cyanobacteriaceae. C/S and C/N ratios will be presented to demonstrate that the forms embedded in the meteorite rock matrix cannot logically be dismissed as post-arrival biological contaminants. It is concluded that the well-preserved, fossilized filaments and dense mats found in Orgueil represent the remains of a complex aquatic and benthic cyanobacterial mat community that grew on the parent body of the meteorite prior to entry into Earth’s atmosphere.
Richard B. Hoover conducts research in Microbial Extremophiles and Astromaterials at the NSSTC Astrobiology Laboratory. He has authored/edited 35 books and over 250 scientific papers. He is well known for his work on X-Ray Optics and is an internationally recognized diatomist. He Inventoried the Henri van Heurck Diatom Collection at the invitation of the Royal Society of Belgium and authored the first article on Diatoms to appear in National Geographic (June, 1979). He collaborated with the late Sir Fred Hoyle exploring the possibility that diatoms and other microorganisms might inhabit comets or the oceans of Europa. His diatom photos have appeared in many international publications published and for almost a decade his arranged diatom slides were exhibited at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Hoover has led scientific expeditions to collect microbial extremophiles in California, Santorini, Hawaii Alaska, Patagonia, North Siberia and Antarctica that resulted in the discovery and valid publication of a new genus Anaerovirgula and several new species of bacteria and archaea. Astronauts James Lovell and Owen Garriott participated in the Antarctica 2000 Expedition that resulted in the discovery of the new species Trichococcus patagoniensis that grows at -5 degrees C. The new species Tindallia californiensis, Desulfonatronum thiodismutans and Spirochaeta americana (a hydrogen producer) were discovered in samples from Mono Lake and Carnobacterium pleistocenium is a living Pleistocene bacterium recovered from 32,000 year old ice sample from the Fox Tunnel of Alaska. Thermococcus thioreducens is a new species of archaeon from the Rainbow Hydrothermal Vent that will be published in July 2007. He has extensively studied living cyanobacteria, cryopreserved cyanobacteria in the Deep Vostok Ice Cores and cyanobacterial microfossils in Proterozoic Phosphorites from Mongolia and Archaean rocks from Siberia. Hoover is a Fellow of SPIE and was 2001 SPIE President. He served on several Boards of Directors: SPIE; American Association of Engineering Societies; and Council of Scientific Society Presidents as well as Editorial Boards of several Journals: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, Optical Engineering, Advances in Optical Technology; and Astrobiology and his book Perspectives in Astrobiology was published in 2005. Richard Hoover was elected a Fellow of the Explorers Club (2001) in recognition of his exploration in search for novel life forms in some of the most hostile environments on Earth, and his detection of evidence of microfossils in meteorites, led to his selection as an Honorary Life Member (2004) of the Planetary Studies Foundation.
Richard Hoover has led scientific expeditions to collect extremophiles in the permafrost and glaciers of North Siberia, Alaska, Patagonia and Antarctica; haloalkaline lakes, geysers and fumaroles of California, Santorini, and Hawaii. He was Science Team Leader to the Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole of Antarctica. These expeditions resulted in the discovery and valid publication of several genera and species of bacteria and archaea previously unknown to science. Astronauts James L. Lovell and Owen K. Garriott participated in Antarctica 2000 Expedition, which resulted in the discovery of Trichococcus patagoniensis that can grow at -5 degrees C. Novel species of bacteria: Tindallia californiensis, Desulfonatronum thiodismutans and Spirochaeta americana (which produces hydrogen as its main waste product) were isolated from samples he collected in Mono Lake, CA. Carnobacterium pleistocenium is a living Pleistocene microorganism that he recovered from 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Permafrost Tunnel in Alaska. The new genus Anaerovirgula multivorans is unusual in that it can grow on both D- and L- sugars. Thermococcus thioreducens is a novel archaeon collected by Owen Garriott from the Rainbow Hydrothermal. He is Fellow of SPIE and was 2001 SPIE President of SPIE. He has served on the Boards of Directors of SPIE; the American Association of Engineering Societies; and the Council of Scientific Society Presidents and the Editorial Board of: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, Optical Engineering and Astrobiology. His book Perspectives in Astrobiology was published in 2005. In recognition of his exploration in some of the most hostile environments on Earth in search of novel life forms, Hoover was elected a Fellow of the Explorers Club in 2001. His research on new species of microbial extremophiles and the detection of evidence of microfossils in meteorites, led to his selection in 2004 as an Honorary Life Member of the Planetary Studies Foundation.
Journal of Cosmology:
4.4 Amino Acids and Chiral Biomarkers Modern Bacteria and Carbonaceous Meteorites. A suite of 20 life-critical amino acids are present in the proteins of all life forms known on Earth. The protein amino acids exhibit homochirality in that they are exclusively the L-enantiomer. Table IV shows the protein L-amino acids in the exopolysaccharide (EPS) slime sheath of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-3A; living cells of the bacteria E. Coli and Salmonella sp. and ancient terrestrial biology (e.g., a Fly in amber and teeth of a Cretaceous Duck-Billed Hadrosaur) for comparison with extraterrestrial amino acids detected in the Murchison, Murray, Orgueil and Ivuna meteorites reported by Ehrenfreund et al., Engel et al. and Cronin and Pizarello. The amino acids of Table IV shown in italics or marked with “-“ or “n.d.” were either not detected or present at only trace levels in the fossils in terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites. Even though there is no doubt that the amber encased fly and the Hadrosaur teeth are biological in origin, it is seen that these fossils are also missing several of the same amino acids that absent in the carbonaceous meteorites. Only 8 of the 20 life-critical protein amino acids are detectable in water/acid extracts of carbonaceous meteorites. The fact that several of the amino acids missing in meteorites and ancient terrestrial fossils are abundant in living bacteria provides strong evidence that the meteorites are not contaminated by modern biological materials. If modern bio-contaminants were present, all 20 protein amino acids should be detected.
The data of Table IV indicates that the most abundant (by weight%) amino acids in the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. are GLU, ASP, ALA, GLY and LEU (all above 8%) followed closely by THR, SER, VAL, ILEU and PRO (all above ~5%). However, GLY is by far the most abundant protein amino acid in the Murchison (CM2), Murray (CM2), Orgueil (CI1) and Ivuna (CI1) carbonaceous meteorites and it is followed by ALA, GLU and ASP. However, in these carbonaceous meteorites, the protein amino acids LEU, THR, SER, VAL, ILEU and PRO, which are abundant in all life on Earth, are either totally absent or detected only at trace levels. As has been pointed out by Engel and Macko (2005) these missing protein amino acids provide clear and convincing evidence that the interior portions of the CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites are not contaminated by modern cyanobacteria, pollen, fingerprints or other microbial contaminants. Isovaline (IVA), α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and γ -Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) are the most abundant non-protein amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites. While they are not protein amino acids it is wrong to conclude that they are not biological in nature. The amino acids IVA and AIB are formed on Earth by the diagenetic alteration of ancient biological materials and γ -Aminobutyric Acid is synthesized by organisms on Earth. However, most protein amino acids are absent in meteorites and terrestrial fossils and only 8 of the 20 life-critical protein amino acids have been found in carbonaceous meteorites using the most sensitive modern methodologies available.
4.5 Comets as Parent Bodies of CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites. The CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are jet-black stones that contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The albedo of the Orgueil meteorite is extremely low (~0.05) and comparable to that of the very dark C-type asteroids and the nuclei of comets. This is blacker than asphalt which has an albedo of ~ 0.07. The European Space Agency Halley Multicolor Camera aboard the Giotto Spacecraft obtained images at the closest approach (00:03:01.84 UT on March 14, 1986) at a distance of 596 km from the centre of the nucleus revealing detailed topographic features on the black (albedo 0.04) surface and jets Lamarre et al. (1986) reported that IKS-Vega data indicated the temperature of nucleus of comet Halley was 420 K +/- 60K at 0.8 A.U which was consistent with “a thin layer of porous black material covering the comet nucleus.” The Deep Space 1 spacecraft found the 8 km long nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly to be very hot (~345 K) with prominent jets aligned with the orientation of the rotation axis of the nucleus and albedo of 0.01 to 0.03 (Soderbloom et al. 2002). Ices of water, carbon dioxide, methane and other volatiles in the cold nucleus in proximity to the hot crust would melt and then boil to produce high pressure beneath the crust if gas is released faster than it can escape through the porous crust. In regions where the pressure exceeds the strength of the crust, localized failure of portions of the crust could result in explosive release of the gas giving rise to the observed flaring of comets and the dramatic jets.
Once a comet enters the inner solar system, it becomes hot from solar radiation on the black nucleus and loses mass rapidly. The European Space Agency Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) showed that water was the primary volatile (75-80 %) of the 40-50 km diameter nucleus of Comet Hale-Bopp. Minor volatile fractions detected (CH4, NH3 and H2CO) could have come from clathrates (H2O ice with simple gasses like CO2 and NH3 in a stable lattice structure) or result from atmospheric chemistry. ISO found that Hale-Bopp released water vapor, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at a rate of 2 x 109 kg/sec and detected olivine in the dust. Olivine is commonly encountered in meteorites. As comets lose ices they develop an inert outer crust from the less volatile material. The nuclei of comets are extremely complex – they exhibit rugged terrain, smooth rolling plains, deep fractures and are composed of very dark material. This black crust becomes very hot while the comet is in the inner regions of the Solar System.
Figure 7.a. is a NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft composite false color image showing geyser-like jets erupting from the long prolate nucleus (8 km) of comet 19P/Borrelly on Sept. 22, 2001. (The colors indicate three orders of magnitude in light level (red is 1/10, blue 1/100 and purple 1/1000 the intensity of the comet nucleus). The red bumps on the nucleus are real and show where the main jet resolves into three distinct narrow jets coming from distinct sources on the comet nucleus. These narrow jets are entirely consistent with the hypothesis that internal pressures generated by steam produced by melting of internal ices which then boil into gases as they are vaporized as heat conducts through hot crust. The NASA Deep Impact probe obtained the valuable data about the nature of comets as it approached and when the impactor collided with the nucleus of comet 9/P Temple 1 on July 4, 2005. Fig. 7.b is a Deep Impact image of the nucleus of comet Temple 1. The regions shown in blue are where exposed deposits of water ice that were detected on the surface of the comet nucleus Sunshine et al. (2005). These water ice regions ere observed to be ~30% brighter than the surrounding areas and probably were exposed when portions of the black crust was blown off into space by the explosive eruptions such as were recorded in a video by the spacecraft. The Deep Impact measurements of the temperature profile of comet P/Temple 1 nucleus at 1.5 AU is shown in Figure 7.c. Even as far away from the Sun as Mars the jet-black comet nucleus reaches temperatures as high as 330 K (57 oC). Furthermore, the lowest temperatures measured on the crust were ~ 280 K (7 oC) which is slightly above the temperature at which water ice changes from solid to liquid phase. Prior to the impact, the ambient outgassing of Temple 1 was ~6×1027 molecules/s of water. However, the free sublimation of ice calculated above (~200 K) was only ~4.5 x 1021 molecules/m2/s indicating that the ambient outgassing had significant subsurface sources. The Deep Impact spacecraft also observed numerous events of flaring of the nucleus and eruption of geyser-like jets as the comet was approached and before the collision of the impactor. On November 4, 2010, the NASA EPOXI extended mission of the Deep Impact Spacecraft passed within 435 miles of the 2.2 km long nucleus of comet Hartley 2 and revealed bright jets of carbon dioxide gas and dust.
These observations of comets are consistent with the hypothesis that the comet crust impedes the flow of gasses such that pressures develop as ices melt and vaporize in pockets and cavities beneath the crust. This provides the pressures needed to allow water to transition from the solid to the liquid state and then into the gaseous state. This would create micro-niches with pools of liquid water trapped within pockets in rock and ice, very much analogous to the cryoconite and ice bubble ecosystems contained psychrophilic microbial extremophiles such as those described from the glaciers and frozen Pleistocene thermokarst ponds of Alaska and Siberia and the glaciers and perennially ice covered lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee in East Antarctica (Hoover, 2008; Hoover and Pikuta, 2010; Pikuta et al. 2005). If gas is produced faster than it can escape through the porous crust, it could high pressures resulting in localized failure of weaker portions of the crust and the violent eruption into space of carbon dioxide, water vapor and chunks of crust and particles of ice and dust propelled into space and directed into the dust tail of the comet. These dust particulates could give rise to meteor showers as the comet passes through the tail. From time to time, larger chunks of the ejected may survive passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and this could be the link between comets and the CI1 (and possibly the CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. The fact that the CI1 meteorites contain minerals that were extensively altered by liquid water on the parent body and that the stones have been found to contain a large amount of indigenous extraterrestrial water clearly establishes that their parent bodies were most likely comets or water-bearing asteroids. It is now well known that the black nuclei of comets get very hot (significantly above >273 K where water ice melts) as they approach the Sun.
Gounelle et al. (2006) used the eyewitness accounts to compute the atmospheric trajectory and orbit of the Orgueil meteoroid and concluded that the orbital plane was close to the ecliptic and that entry into the atmosphere took place at a height of approximately 70 km and an angle of ~20°. Their calculations indicated the meteoroid terminal height was ~20 km and the pre-atmospheric velocity was > 17.8 km/sec. They found the aphelion to be 5.2 AU (the semi-major axis of orbit of Jupiter) and perihelion ~0.87 AU, which is just inside the Earth’s orbit as would be expected for an Earth-crossing meteorite. This calculated orbit suggests the Apollo Asteroids and the Jupiter-family of comets are likely candidates for the Orgueil parent body include (although Halley-type comets are not excluded).
The cosmochemistry data for a cometary parent body is entirely consistent with the composition and characteristics of the CI1 meteorites. This suggestion that the parent body of the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites were possibly comets is significant with regard to possible existence of indigenous microfossils in the Alais, Ivuna and Orgueil meteorites. From the extensive evidence of aqueous alteration on the Orgueil parent body and the presence of indigenous water in the Orgueil meteorite it is clear that the parent body was either a water-bearing asteroid or a comet. However the Giotto and Vega observations of Halley and the Deep Impact Observations of the nucleus of 9P/Temple-1 have clearly established that these bodies get very hot as they enter the inner regions of the Solar System. It is now clear that any water bearing asteroid with an albedo of the Orgueil meteorite would reach a temperature above 100 C at 1AU. At these temperatures, water ice and other volatiles would be converted to liquid water, steam, and produce an expanding cloud of gas and expelled particulates. Any planetessimal orbiting the Sun and possessing a gaseous envelope and dust tail is traditionally refered to as “comet” rather than an asteroid, and therefore it seems logical that comets represent the most probable parent bodies for these water rich, black meteorites that travel in trajectories that cross the orbit of planet Earth.
4.6 Role of Comets and Carbonaceous Meteorites in the Origin and Evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere The relationship of comets with carbonaceous meteorites and their role in the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere of Earth has become better understood during the past few decades. The cratered surface of the moon provides clear evidence of the intense Hadean bombardment of the inner planets and moons by comets, asteroids and meteorites during the early history of the Solar System. Watson and Harrison (2005) interpreted the crystallization temperatures of 4.4 Ga Zircons from Western Australia as providing evidence that liquid water oceans were present on the early Earth within 200 million years of the formation of the Solar System. It has recently become more widely recognized that comets played a crucial role in the formation of the atmosphere and oceans of early Earth during the Hadean bombardment (Delsemme, 1997; Steel, 1998; Owen, 1997).
In 1978, Sill and Wilkening proposed that comets may have delivered life-critical biogenic elements carbon and nitrogen trapped within clathrate hydrates in their icy nuclei. In the same year, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe (1978, 1981, 1982, 1985) have proposed that comets delivered not only water, biogenic elements and complex organic chemicals to the surface of planet Earth, but that they also delivered intact and viable microorganisms. The detection of microfossils of cyanobacteria and other filamentous trichomic prokaryotes in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites (which are likely cometary crustal remnants) may be interpreted as direct observational data in support of the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe Hypothesis (Wickramasinghe 2011) of the role of comets in the exogenous origin of terrestrial life.
Eberhardt et al. (1987) measured the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in the water of comet P/Halley. Delsemme (1998) found that that the D/H ratio of the water molecules of comets Halley, Hale–Bopp and Hyakutake were consistent with a cometary origin of the oceans. Dauphas et al., (2000) interpreted the deuterium/hydrogen ratios indicate that the delivery of water and ice to the early Earth during the late Hadean heavy bombardment by comets, asteroids and meteorites helped to cool the Earth’s crust and form the early oceans. Table V shows data extracted from the Robert et al. (2000) compilation of Deuterium/Hydrogen ratios of selected components of the Cosmos.
When these bodies are grouped in accordance with their D/H ratio it is easily seen that the telluric inner planets and the LL3 (stony) and SNC (Mars) meteorites have high (~500-16,000) ratios and the gas giants, protosolar nebula, ISM and Galaxies are very low (~15-65). The D/H ratios of the comets (~290-330) and carbonaceous meteorites (~180-370) are much closer to that of Earth (~149) and support the hypothesis that they may have made significant contributions to the formation of the oceans of our planet. It is interesting that the D/H ratios of comets are very similar to the ratios measured in the kerogen, amino acids and carboxylic acids of the Orgueil (CI) and other (CM, CV, and CR) carbonaceous meteorites. This supports the view that although stony meteorites are most probably derived from rocky asteroids, the carbonaceous meteorites most probably are derived from water-bearing asteroids or the nuclei of comets. The 30 m diameter fast-spinning carbonaceous asteroid 1998 KY26 that was discovered on June 2, 1998 has been found to contain 10-20% water. However, the small carbonaceous, water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 also has color and radar reflectivity similar to carbonaceous meteorites and it may be a spent comet. Near IR observations indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. The Cassini/Huygens spacecraft has recently obtained data indicating that a vast liquid water ocean may also exist beneath the thick frozen crust of Titan. Cassini/Huygens has also detected evidence for cryovolcanic water-ice geysers on Titan and Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
5. EVIDENCE OF MICROFOSSILS IN CI1 METEORITES AND LIFE IN ICE: IMPLICATIONS TO POSSIBLE LIFE ON COMETS, EUROPA, AND ENCELADUS
The detection of evidence of viable microbial life in ancient ice (Abyzov et al., 1998, 2003; Hoover and Pikuta, 2010) and the presence of microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria and other trichomic prokaryotes in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites has direct implications to possible life on comets and icy moons with liquid water oceans of Jupiter (e.g. Europa, Ganymede or Callisto) and Enceladus (Fig. 8.a) Saturn’s spectacular moon that is exhibiting cryovolcanism and spewing water, ice and organics into space from the region of the blue and white “tiger stripes.” Europa exhibits red, orange, yellow and ochre colors and fractured regions indicating the icy crust is floating on a liquid water ocean. The possibility of life on Europa has been discussed by Hoover et al. (1986): Chyba et al. (2001) Dalton et al. (2003), and in edited books by Russell (2011), and Wickramasinghe (2011) and in Volumes 5, 11, and 13 of the Journal of Cosmology. Hoover et al. (1986) argued while deep blue and white colors in the Galileo images of the Jovian moon Europa were typical of glacial ice, ice bubbles and snow on Earth as seen in this image of ice bubbles from the Schirmacher Oasis of East Antarctica (Fig, 8.b). The red, yellow, brown, golden brown, green and blue colors detected by the Galileo spacecraft in the Conamara Chaos region (Fig. 8.c.) and the deep red lines of the icy crust of Europa (Fig. 8.d.) are consistent with microbial pigments rather than evaporite minerals. The 1986 paper suggested that the colors seen in Europa images resulted from microbial life in the upper layers of the ice. A number of more recent studies and books have been published concerning the significance of ice microbiota to the possibility of life elsewhere in the Solar System (e.g. Russell 2011; Wickramasinghe 2011; Volumes 5, 7, 13 of the Journal of Cosmology).
Diatoms are golden brown and cyanobacteria exhibit a wide range of colors from blue-green to red, orange, brown and black. Bacteria recovered from ice are often pigmented. For example, the extremophiles isolated from the ancient Greenland ice cores produce pigmented colonies. Herminiimonas glaciei colonies are red (Fig. 8.e) and the colonies of “Chryseobacterium greenlandensis” exhibit yellow pigments (Fig. 6.b.). Figure 5.c. shows the red pigmented colonies of the new genus of psychrophile, Rhodoglobus vestali isolated from a lake near the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica (Sheridan et al. 2003). Colonies of Hymenobacter sp. (Fig. 6.d.) isolated from the Schirmacher Oasis Ice Cave are red-ochre in color (Hoover and Pikuta, 2009, 2010). The possibility of life on Enceladus and the detection of biomarkers in the plumes of water, ice and organic chemicals ejected from the “Tiger Stripes” of Enceladus has been discussed by McKay et al., (2008) Hoover and Pikuta ( 2010) and in a number of articles published in volumes 5, 7, and 13 of the Journal of Cosmology.
It is concluded that the complex filaments found embedded in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites represent the remains of indigenous microfossils of cyanobacteria and other prokaryotes associated with modern and fossil prokaryotic mats. Many of the Ivuna and Orgueil filaments are isodiametric and others tapered, polarized and exhibit clearly differentiated apical and basal cells. These filaments were found in freshly fractured stones and are observed to be attached to the meteorite rock matrix in the manner of terrestrial assemblages of aquatic benthic, epipelic, and epilithic cyanobacterial communities comprised of species that grow on or in mud or clay sediments. Filamentous cyanobacteria similar in size and detailed morphology with basal heterocysts are well known in benthic cyanobacterial mats, where they attach the filament to the sediment at the interface between the liquid water and the substratum. The size, size range and complex morphological features and characteristics exhibited by these filaments render them recognizable as representatives of the filamentous Cyanobacteriaceae and associated trichomic prokaryotes commonly encountered in cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, the well-preserved mineralized trichomic filaments with carbonaceous sheaths found embedded in freshly fractured interior surfaces of the Alais, Ivuna, and Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are interpreted as the fossilized remains of prokaryotic microorganisms that grew in liquid regimes on the parent body of the meteorites before they entered the Earth’s atmosphere.
The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data reveals that the filaments detected in the meteorites typically exhibit external sheaths enriched in carbon infilled with minerals enriched in magnesium and sulfur. These results are interpreted as indicating that the organisms died on the parent body while aqueous fluids were present and the internal cells were replaced by epsomite and other water soluble evaporite minerals dissolved in the liquids circulating through the parent body. The nitrogen level in the meteorite filaments was almost always below the detection limit of the EDS detector (0.5% atomic). However, nitrogen is essential for all amino acids, proteins, and purine and pyrimidine nitrogen bases of the nucleotides of all life on Earth.
Extensive EDS studies of living and dead cyanobacteria and other biological materials have shown that nitrogen is detectable at levels between 2% and 18% (atomic) in cyanobacterial filaments from Vostok Ice (82 Kya) and found in stomach milk the mammoth Lyuba (40 Kya); mammoth hair/ tissue (40-32 Kya); pre-dynastic Egyptian and Peruvian mummies (5-2 Kya) and herbarium filamentous diatom sheaths (1815). However, Nitrogen is not detected in ancient biological materials such as fossil insects in Miocene Amber (8 Mya); Cambrian Trilobites from the Wheeler Shale (505 Mya) or cyanobacterial filaments from Karelia (2.7 Gya). Consequently the absence of nitrogen in the cyanobacterial filaments detected in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites indicates that the filaments represent the remains of extraterrestrial life forms that grew on the parent bodies of the meteorites when liquid water was present, long before the meteorites entered the Earth’s atmosphere. This finding has direct implications to the distribution of life in the Cosmos and the possibility of microbial life in liquid water regimes of cometary nuclei as they travel within the orbit of Mars and in icy moons with liquid water oceans such as Europa and Enceladus.