The Third Way: Criticas a Teoria da Evolução

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A descoberta deste movimento começou por este artigo:

https://evolutionnews.org/2014/05/a_group_of_darw/

A Group of Darwin-Skeptical Scientists Seeking a "Third Way" in Biology Have Launched a New Website; Welcome to Them!

A partir daqui começa a pesquisa ( no search do Google, no website Third Way e todos os itens com critica ‘a teoria)

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Lendo:

https://thefederalist.com/2019/04/16/one-third-biologists-now-question-darwinism/

Why One-Third Of Biologists Now Question Darwinism

At its most specific level of the common descent of all life on earth from a single ancestor via undirected mutation and natural selection, many legitimately question evolutionary theory as it stands.

Matrix/DNA: O mais especifico nível “da comum descendência de toda a vida na Terra desde um simples e único ancestral via mutações não-dirigidas e seleção natural”, muitos cientistas questionam a teoria da evolução neste item.

Para nos não tem este problema pois a nossa teoria sugere que a evolução e dirigida e explica como.

 

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Expelled: No Intelligency Allowed (video)

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No lido ainda

NATURE:

Does evolutionary theory need a rethink?

https://www.nature.com/news/does-evolutionary-theory-need-a-rethink-1.16080

Paper com Controversia entre cientistas:

YES, URGENTLY — Kevin Laland and colleagues

NO, ALL IS WELL — Gregory A. Wray

“… extended evolutionary synthesis (EES),  is a new vision for to flesh out  structure, assumptions and predictions of evolutionary theory. In essence, this synthesis maintains that important drivers of evolution, ones that cannot be reduced to genes, must be woven into the very fabric of evolutionary theory. We hold that organisms are constructed in development, not simply ‘programmed’ to develop by genes. Living things do not evolve to fit into pre-existing environments, but co-construct and coevolve with their environments, in the process changing the structure of ecosystems.

Matrix/DNA: ” Organismos sao construidos durante seu desenvolvimento, nao simplesmente programados a desenvolver pelos genes. Seres vivos nao evoluem para se encaixarem em pre-existentes ambientes, mas co-constroem e se desenvolvem com seus ambientes, neste processo mudando a estrutura dos ecossistemas.

A nossa teoria aceita e preve isso. As mudancas no ambiente podem ser causadas por tres motivos: 1) Os sistemas astronomicos se desenvolvem pelo processo do ciclo vital, o qual vi mudando a forma do ambiente; 2) Fotons vindos de radiacao estelar ou cosmica podem penetrar eletrons dos atomos de seres vivos. Se novos fotons vem de camadas mais ou menos evoluidasdo que os atuais existentes aqui, podem mudar a estrutura dos ambientes; 3) Acao humana e de outros seres vivos. Ocorre a interacao entre os bits-informacao (fotons, ou pacotes deles) do meio ambiente e dos seres vivos, causando mutacoes enquanto o organismo esta sendo formado.

The number of biologists calling for change in how evolution is conceptualized is growing rapidly. Strong support comes from allied disciplines, particularly developmental biology, but also genomics, epigenetics, ecology and social science12. We contend that evolutionary biology needs revision if it is to benefit fully from these other disciplines. The data supporting our position gets stronger every day.

Yet the mere mention of the EES often evokes an emotional, even hostile, reaction among evolutionary biologists. Too often, vital discussions descend into acrimony, with accusations of muddle or misrepresentation. Perhaps haunted by the spectre of intelligent design, evolutionary biologists wish to show a united front to those hostile to science. Some might fear that they will receive less funding and recognition if outsiders — such as physiologists or developmental biologists — flood into their field. However, another factor is more important: many conventional evolutionary biologists study the processes that we claim are neglected, but they comprehend them very differently (see ‘No, all is well’). This is no storm in an academic tearoom, it is a struggle for the very soul of the discipline.

Matrix/DNA: Os motivos pelos quais os biologos evolucionistas conservadores reagem com irritacao a mudancas na teoria e a teorias alternativas podem ser: 1) porque estao alertados pelo espectro do Intelligent Designer e creem que devem se unirem fortemente contra aqules que sao hostis a ciencia; 2) Receiam que receberao menos fundos e reconhecimento dos que nao sao da area, como fisiologistas ou biologos desenvolvimentais, e estes podem invadirem sua área; 3) Muitos biologos evolucionistas estudam os processos que nos criticamos como negligenciados, mas eles compreendem estes processos de maneira diferente. Iso nao precisa ser uma tempestade dentro de uma sala de cha academica, mas e um emperramento para a intimadade da disciplina.

Por isso o ataque agressivo quando exponho a teoria da Matrix/DNA.

The core of current evolutionary theory was forged in the 1930s and 1940s. It combined natural selection, genetics and other fields into a consensus about how evolution occurs. This ‘modern synthesis’ allowed the evolutionary process to be described mathematically as frequencies of genetic variants in a population change over time — as, for instance, in the spread of genetic resistance to the myxoma virus in rabbits. In the decades since, evolutionary biology has incorporated developments consistent with the tenets of the modern synthesis. One such is ‘neutral theory’, which emphasizes random events in evolution. However, standard evolutionary theory (SET) largely retains the same assumptions as the original modern synthesis, which continues to channel how people think about evolution.

Matrix/DNA: A “Modern Synthesis foi elaborada nos anos 1930 e 1940. Com os novos dados depois de entao, foi mudada para a “SET – Standard Evolutionary Theory”. Mas a SET ainda mantem largamente as mesmas conclusoes da Modern Synthesis.

The story that SET tells is simple: new variation arises through random genetic mutation; inheritance occurs through DNA; and natural selection is the sole cause of adaptation, the process by which organisms become well-suited to their environments. In this view, the complexity of biological development — the changes that occur as an organism grows and ages — are of secondary, even minor, importance.

Entao a SET – a mais recente reconstrucao da teoria – defende que: 1) novas variacoes surgem atraves de mutacoes geneticas ao acaso (V de Variation); hereditariedade ocorre atraves do DNA (I de Inheritance); e, 3) Natural selecao e a unica causa da adaptacao, o processo pelo qual os organismos se tornam bem encaixados ou sintonizados aosseus ambientes.

Os cientistas insatisfeitos defendem que a complexidade do desenvolvimento biologico – as mudancas que ocorrem enquanto um organismo cresce e se torna mais idoso, sao desprezadas pela SET, como de secundaria importancia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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