Descoberta de Vida em Profundas Camadas de Gêlo da Antarctica interessa NASA e Fornece Bioquimica/Abiótica Informação para Matrix/DNA Theory

Microbial life at −13 °C in the brine of anice-sealed Antarctic lake

Edited by David M. Karl, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, and approved October 19, 2012 (received for review May 22, 2012)

Muita informação bioquimica util para Matrix/DNA desenvolver seus cálculos como a Matrix astronomica se inseriu nos átomos da Terra e quais os elementos envolvidos. Pesquisa a ser continuada.


The permanent ice cover of Lake Vida (Antarctica) encapsulates anextreme cryogenic brine ecosystem (−13 °C; salinity, 200). Thisaphotic ecosystem is anoxic and consists of a slightly acidic (pH6.2) sodium chloride-dominated brine. Expeditions in 2005 and2010 were conducted to investigate the biogeochemistry of LakeVida’s brine system. A phylogenetically diverse and metabolicallyactive Bacteria dominated microbial assemblage was observed inthe brine. These bacteria live under very high levels of reducedmetals, ammonia, molecular hydrogen (H2), and dissolved organiccarbon, as well as high concentrations of oxidized species of nitrogen (i.e., supersaturated nitrous oxide and ∼1 mmol·L−1nitrate)and sulfur (as sulfate). The existence of this system, with activebiota, and a suite of reduced as well as oxidized compounds, isunusual given the millennial scale of its isolation from externalsources of energy. The geochemistry of the brine suggests thatabiotic brine-rock reactions may occur in this system and that therich sources of dissolved electron acceptors prevent sulfate reduction and methanogenesis from being energetically favorable. Thediscovery of this ecosystem and the in situ biotic and abiotic processes occurring at low temperature provides a tractable system tostudy habitability of isolated terrestrial cryoenvironments (e.g.,permafrost cryopegs and subglacial ecosystems), and is a potentialanalog for habitats on other icy worlds where water-rock reactionsmay cooccur with saline deposits and subsurface oceans.
1) Brine ( salmoura)
Brine is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, or the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Ver continuação
2) Cryogenics – ( Criogenia )
In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. A person who studies elements under extremely cold temperature is called a cryogenicist. Rather than the relative temperature scales of Celsius and Fahrenheit, cryogenicists use the absolute temperature scales. These are Kelvin (SI units) or Rankine scale (Imperial & US units).

Production of Cryogenic cooling of devices and material

Cryogenic cooling of devices and material is usually achieved via the use of liquid nitrogenliquid helium, or a cryocompressor (which uses high pressure helium lines). Newer devices such as pulse cryocoolers and Stirling cryocoolers have been devised. The most recent development in cryogenics is the use of magnets as regenerators as well as refrigerators. These devices work on the principle known as the magnetocaloric effect.


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