Astronomia: Russia e Sua Moderna Teoria Cientifica Astronomica

Concepts of modern natural science (astronomy)

1. the solar system and its origin
2. stars and their evolution
3. Overview of the galaxies and their study
4. the concept of Metagalactics

1. the solar system and its origin


In the solar system is the Sun, 9 major planets and their satellites, 34 more than 100 thousand minor planets (asteroids), about 10 to 11 degrees of comets, as well as countless small, so-called meteoroid (poperečnikom from 100 meters up to very small particles). The central position in the solar system is the Sun. Its mass is about 750 times the mass of all the other bodies in the system. The gravitational pull of the Sun is the main force that defines the movement of all circulating around the solar system bodies. The average distance from the Sun to the distant planet of Pluto is 39.5 a.u., i.e. 6 billion kilometers, that is very little compared to the distances to nearby stars. Only some comets are removed from the Sun at 100 thousand a.e. and are exposed to the attraction of the stars. Moving in the Galaxy, solar system from time to time flies through interstellar gas-dust cloud. Due to extreme discharge of substances these clouds dive in the cloud may manifest only at small absorption and scattering of sunlight. Manifestations of this effect in the past history of the land had not yet been set. All large planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto orbit the Sun in the same direction (in the direction of the rotation of the sun itself), to almost circular orbits, little inclined to each other (and to the solar Equator). The plane of Earth’s orbit and the ecliptic is the plane of the main otsčëte inclinations of the orbits of the planets and other bodies turning around the Sun. The distance of the planets from the Sun are legitimate sequence gaps between adjacent orbits are increasing with distance from the Sun. These laws of planetary motion in conjunction with the Division of them into two groups according to their physical properties, indicate that the solar system is not a random collection of cosmic bodies, and appeared in a single process. Thanks to the nearly circular shape of planetary orbits and large gaps between them ruled out the possibility of close encounters between planets, where they might significantly change their movement as a result of mutual attraction. It provides long term existence of the planetary system. Planets revolve just around its axis, and almost all the planets except Venus and Uranus rotates in the same direction as its circulation around the Sun. Extremely slow rotation of the Venus is going in the opposite direction, and Uranus is spinning as if lying on its side. Most satellites orbit their planets in the same direction in which the axial rotation of the planet. The orbits of the satellites are usually circular and lie near the plane of the equator of the planet, forming a kind of planetary system. These are, for example, a system of satellites of Uranus and the system galileevskih the satellites of Jupiter. Reverse movements have satellites located far away from the planet. Saturn, Jupiter and Uranus also selected satellites marked sizes are a lot of small satellites, how would merging in solid rings. These satellites orbits so close to the planet that tidal power allows them to unite in one body. The vast majority of the orbits of the known minor planets is located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. All minor planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the larger planet, but their orbits are generally elongated and tilted to the plane of the ecliptic. Comets move in orbits close to a parabolic. Some comets have elongated orbits relatively small sizes-AE in the tens or hundreds of these comets, called periodic, dominated by direct motion, i.e. the movement in the direction of the planets. As a rotating system of bodies of the solar system has a moment of momentum (MCD). The main part of it is related to the orbital motion of the planets around the Sun, and the massive Jupiter and Saturn are about 90%. The axial rotation of the Sun has only 2 per cent of MCD across the solar system, while the mass of the Sun is over 99.8% of the total mass. This Division of MCD in between the Sun and planets due to slow rotation of the Sun and the huge size of the planetary system is its diameter of several thousand times the diameter of the Sun. MCD world acquired during their education: he switched to them from the substance from which they were formed. The planets are divided into two groups that differ in mass, chemical composition (this is reflected in the differences of density), rotation speed and the number of satellites. The four planets closest to the Sun, terrestrial planets, are small, consisting of a dense Rocky substances and metals. Planet of Giants-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is much more massive, consist primarily of the lungs and therefore, despite the enormous pressure in their bowels, have low density. Home of Jupiter and Saturn have a fraction of their mass is hydrogen and helium. They contain up to 20% of the Rocky material and light oxygen compounds, carbon and nitrogen, capable in low temperature concentrating in ICES. The subsoil of the planets and some satellites are in raskalënnom condition. The terrestrial planets and satellites, due to low thermal conductivity the external layers of the internal heat very slowly seeps outwards and not significantly affect the temperature of the surface. The giant planets in the bowels of convection results in marked heat flow from the depths, and exceed the flow, resulting to them from the Sun. Venus, Earth and Mars have atmospheres composed of gases evolved from their bowels. The giant planet’s atmosphere is a direct continuation of their bowels: these planets do not have solid or liquid surfaces. When diving into the atmospheric gases are condensed foam post status. The ninth Planet Pluto appears to be neither one of the two groups. It is similar in chemical composition to a group of giant planets, and is closer in size to Earth’s group. Comet kernel with its chemical composition related to the planets-Giants: they are composed of water ice and ice of various gases mixed with rocky material. Almost all minor planets in their current composition are the Rocky planets (Jovians). The relatively newly opened Chiron, moving mainly between the orbits of Saturn and Uranus are probably like ice cores of comets and small satellites far from the Sun of the planets. The wreckage of the small planets from their clash with each other, sometimes fall to Earth as meteorites. The small planets, precisely because of their small size, the subsoil were fuelled by much less than the terrestrial planets, and therefore their stuff often has undergone only minor changes since their formation. Measuring the age of meteorites (on the content of radioactive elements and their decay products) showed that they, and hence the whole solar system about 5 billion years. The age of the solar system is in agreement with measurements of the oldest terrestrial and lunar samples.

One of the central questions of our planetary system and we, the problem of its origin. how did the family of celestial bodies, concerning Xia around the Sun? The answer to this question is not only an important scientific, but ideological, philosophical meaning. For centuries scientists working off of was figure out the past, present and future of the universe. Often their views are more or less linked to the prevailing religious views of MI. But even in ancient times was the thought that the world was not created by any of the gods. It has always existed and will exist. Some worlds are, did, others collapse and die. The Earth and other worlds was as a result of been of natural causes.

However, such brilliant insights are so ahead of the era that could not be perceived by the contemporaries. In a dispute about the origin and development of the Earth and planets have experienced two diametrically opposite and irreconcilable judgments about that, lies at the heart of the universe is an eternal spirit or the mate of Riya? The world was created by God, or it exists forever?

Unlike idealists who claim primacy of spirit and to consider the world of a product of God’s creation, the materialists recognize the primacy of matter. Reaffirming its conclusions of the practice, research and observations, based on daily experience vyvaâs′, the materialists argue that all celestial bodies, including the Earth and the planets, can arise only from other forms of matter, that is, formed by natural means. In our time any significant cosmogonic hypothesis are consistently Materia-lističeskimi.

The modern view, the planets of the solar system from a cold place to edu dust clouds, around the Sun billions of years ago. The most consistently held such a view in the works of Soviet Uche Nogo ACA Schmidt.

Based on the theory of j. Schmidt was on the formation of the planets by object-tion of solids and dust particles. Formed around the Sun of gazopylevoe Lako initially was on 98% of hydrogen and helium. The remaining elements of the kondensirovalis′ in dust particles. However, the erratic motion of the gas in the cloud quickly stopped: it had a circulation of clouds around the Sun.[2]

Dust particles are concentrated in the central plane, forming a layer of high density. When the density of the layer has reached some “criticism of social values, his own inclination was” compete “with the tendencies of the Sun. A layer of dust was unstable and broke up into separate dust sgust-Ki. Colliding with each other, they formed a lot of solid dense bodies. The largest of them have almost circular orbits and its growth began to overtake the other body, becoming potential future planetary embryos. As more massive body, joined the remaining tumors substance gas-dust cloud. In the end emerged nine major planets which orbits remains stable for billions of years.

Thus, nearly circular orbits of the planets were the result of osredne of the orbits of bodies coming together in the world. Divide planets into two groups is due to the fact that in the distant from the Sun parts the clouds temperature was low and all substances ­, except hydrogen and helium, formed solids. Among them are dominated of methane, ammonia and water, determined the composition of Uranus and Neptune. The most massive of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, in addition, a significant number of quality gas. In the area of terrestrial planets temperature was much higher and volatile substances (including methane and ammonia) were left in the gaseous state and, consequently, the planets are not logged. This group of SFOR in planets mirovalis′ mainly of silicates and metals.

The scientific theory of the origin of the solar system is supported by many of the observations. However, it is impossible to say that the process of planetary education thoroughly studied.

2. the stars and their evolution.


Stars-hot giants that produce a large amount of ultraviolet photons that ionize around interstellar hydrogen in a large area. Ionization zone size to a very great extent depends on the temperature and luminosity of the star. Out of zones of ionization, almost all hydrogen is in the neutral position.

Star, for the rare exception, there are both “point” sources of radiation. This means that the angular dimensions are very small. Even in the largest telescopes cannot see the stars in the form of “real” drives. I emphasize the word “real”, because thanks to the purely instrumental effects, but mainly nespokojnost′û atmosphere in the focal plane of the telescope is a “false” depiction of the star as a disk. Angular dimensions of this disc are rarely less than one second of arc, while even the closest stars they must be less than one hundredth of a second of arc.

So, the star even in the largest telescopes cannot be, as they say, “is permitted”. This means that we can measure only streams of radiation from stars in different spectral plots. Measure value stream is the magnitude.

Only the rich information enables study of Spectra of stars. Long ago the vast majority of the spectra of stars are divided into classes. The sequence of spectral class is denoted by the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, M, the current system of classification of stellar spectra is so precise, that allows you to define a range of up to one tenth of the class. For example, part of a sequence of stellar spectra between classes B and is denoted as B0, B1, … B9, A0, and so on. The spectrum of stars in the first approximation resembles a spectrum of radiating black body with a temperature that these temperatures change gradually from 40-50 thousand degrees, stars of spectral class of up to 3000 degrees, stars of spectral class m, in accordance with the bulk of the radiation of the stars of spectral class and be in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, inaccessible to observation from the Earth’s surface. However, in recent decades had been running specialized artificial satellites of the Earth; on board were installed telescopes through which it was possible to explore and ultraviolet radiation.

A characteristic feature of stellar spectra is still a huge amount of absorption lines of various elements. A subtle analysis of these lines has yielded particularly valuable information on the nature of the external layers of the stars.

The chemical composition of the outer layers of the star, where we “directly” comes to light, is characterized by a complete predominance of hydrogen. In second place is helium, and the abundance of the remaining elements is quite small. Approximately every ten thousand hectares of hydrogen atoms absorb thousands of helium atoms, about 10 atoms of oxygen, carbon and nitrogen is a bit smaller and only one atom of iron. The abundance of the remaining elements is totally insignificant. We can say without exaggeration that the outer layers of the stars is a giant hydrogen-helium plasma with a small impurity of heavier elements.

A good indicator of the temperature of the outer layers of the star is its color. Hot stars of spectral class and have a blue color; stars similar to our Sun (spectral class G2) are yellow, the stars of the same spectral class k and m-red. In Astrophysics, a carefully designed and completely objective color system. It is based on a comparison of the observed magnitudes obtained through various strictly ètalonirovannye filters. Quantify the color of stars is characterized by a difference of two values obtained through two filters, one of which passes a predominantly blue rays (“in”), and the other has a spectral response curve similar to the human eye (“V”). Technique of colour measurements of stars is so high that the measured value of the B-V, you can determine the spectrum of the star to the subclass. For the faint stars of color analysis is the only possibility of their spectral classification.

Knowledge of the type or colour of the star immediately gives the temperature of its surface. Because stars emit approximately as completely black body corresponding to the temperature, the power, the unit of their surfaces, convectively emitted is determined from the Stefan Boltzmann:

-the Boltzmann constant

Power of the entire surface of the star, or its luminosity, obviously will be equal

(*), where R-radius of the star. Thus, to determine the radius of the star is to know its luminosity and surface temperature.

We have to define another, perhaps the most important characteristic of a star is its mass. I must say that it is not easy to do. And there aren’t many stars, for which there are reliable definitions of their masses. The last is easiest to determine if the stars form a binary system that orbit and semi-major axis and orbital period p are known. In this case, the masses are determined from the third Kepler’s law can be written in the following form:

Here M1 and M2-mass system component, G is a constant in the law of gravitation. The equation gives the sum of masses of the component of the system. If the ratio of orbital velocity is known, the mass can be determined separately. Unfortunately, only a relatively small number of binaries, you can thus determine the mass of each of the stars.

Generally speaking, astronomy did not have and currently does not have a direct and independent determination of mass (that is not included in the multiple systems) an isolated star. And this is a serious flaw of our science of the universe. If such a method existed, the progress of our knowledge would be much faster. In such a situation, the astronomers tacitly assume that stars with the same luminosity and color have the same mass. The latter are defined only for double systems. The assertion that a single star with the same luminosity and color has the same mass as her “sister”, part of the dual system, always should be taken with some caution.

So, modern astronomy has methods of stellar characteristics: luminosity, surface temperature (color), RADIUS, chemical composition and mass. An important question is whether these characteristics are independent? It turns out, no. First of all there is a functional relationship between the radius of the star, its surface temperature and luminosity of bolometričeskuû. This dependence is a simple formula (*) and is trivial. Along with this, however, has detected a correlation between luminosity of stars and their spectral class (or in fact one and the same-color). This dependence of empirically established (regardless) statistical material on a large back in the beginning of our century’s outstanding astronomers Dane Ejnar Hertzsprung and Russell, an American.

The first stage of life stars similar to the Sun-it is dominated by the reaction of the hydrogen cycle. Temperature goes star is determined by its mass and degree of gravitational contraction, which is opposed mainly by light pressure. The star forms a relatively stable oscillating system, its periodic weak compression and expansion are stellar cycles. the hydrogen burn-out in the center of the star, the helium core cools down, and the area of synthesis reaction moves to the peripherals. the star of “swells”, absorbing the planet of its system, and cools down, becoming a red giant.

Further compression of the helium nucleus raises its temperature before ignition of the reactions of the helium loop. The hydrogen shell gradually dissipates, forming stellar Nebula, and heavily compressed kernel is heated to high temperatures, the illumination of blue-white light (“white dwarf“). as the fuel burn-out star fades away, turning into a sustainable “black dwarf” is a typical outcome of the evolution of most of the stars with a mass of the Sun.

More massive stars at the stage of becoming a white dwarf lose hydrogen shell in the powerful explosion, with repeated increases in luminosity (“super stars“). After burning out their cores of plasma pressure is insufficient to compensate for gravitational forces. As a result of the seal materials the electrons “pressed” into protons with the formation of neutral particles. A neutron star is a very compact (the radius of several kilometers) and solid education, rotating with extremely high speed for space objects: about one turnover in the second. Rotating along with the star’s magnetic field is sending into space a narrow beam of electromagnetic (often-x-ray) radiation, acting like a lighthouse. Powerful sources of radiation discovered in periodic radio astronomy, are called pulsars.

A star with a mass larger than the mass of the Sun more than twice, have such a strong gravitational field, that the neutron star their grip on stops. As a result of the further unrestricted compression- the gravitational collapse of a star is reduced to the size of the speed required for the care of the body with its surface a on infinity exceeds maximum (speed of light). Neither one body (even light) can not leave continuously contracts the star, a black hole, the size of only a few kolometrov. The existence of black holes allow the equations of general relativity. In the area of the black hole spacetime is twisted.

Astronomical observations are difficult because such objects do not emit light. But the star found committing traffic that is specific to the component binary stars, although the steamy star. It is very likely that it is the role of a black hole or neutron star hopping.

Apart from the listed found a number of astrophysical objects, properties which do not fit into the scheme- quasars. The observed their radiation is similar to pulsar nomu, but very much further into the red area. The red shift indicates that the quasars are so far away that their observed brightness corresponds to the radiation intensity exceeds the radiation of Galactic clusters. At the same time, rapid changes of intensity raises the question of the harmonization of radiation of the elements of the system, which must be a thousand light years away.

3. Overview of the galaxies and their study.

 In the second half of the 18-century English Astronomer William Herschel made in different areas of the sky counts stars observed in the field of view of the telescope. It turned out that in heaven you can sketch out the large circle, dissecting all the sky into two parts and has the property that when approaching it from either side of the number of stars visible in the telescope’s field of view, which has been steadily increasing the circle becomes smaller. Just along the circle, known as the Galactic Equator, stretches the milky way, rest a little glowing strip of sky, formed the weak glow of distant stars. Herschel discovered them properly explained the phenomenon that we have observed stars form a giant star system is Oblate to the Galactic Equator.

And yet, although after the Herschel building study our star system-Galaxy by astronomers-Struve, Kapteyn and others, the very idea that Galaxies as segregated l star system was, until the objects were discovered outside the Galaxy. It’s only happened in the 20 years of the century, when it became clear that spiraleobraznye and some other of the Nebula is a giant star systems, of which the huge distances from us and comparable in structure and size of our galaxy.

It turned out that there are a lot of other star systems, galaxies, very diverse in form and composition, and among them there are galaxies, very similar to our own. This has proved to be very important. Our position in the Galaxy, on the one hand, facilitates the study and, on the other hand, makes it difficult to study the structure of the system is it seen from the inside and from the outside.

Shape of Galaxies reminds all severely compressed drive. As you drive, the Galaxy has a plane of symmetry divides it into two equal parts and an axis of symmetry passing through the Centre of the system and perpendicular to the planes of symmetry. But every disk there are precisely outlined the surface-bound. Our star system is such a well-defined borders, as there is no clear upper limit of the Earth’s atmosphere. The stars in the Galaxy are the tighter, closer to the plane of symmetry of the seat of the Galaxy and the closer it is to its plane of symmetry. The largest stellar density in the center of the Galaxy. Here at each cubic parsecs has a few thousand stars, i.e., in the central regions of the Galaxy stellar density many times greater than in the vicinity of the Sun. When you remove from the plane and axis of symmetry of the stellar density decreases with the distance from the plane of symmetry it decreases much more rapidly. On this if we have agreed to consider boundary Galaxies where stellar density is very small and is one star of 100 PS, defined the border of the body would be heavily compressed circular plate. If the border is an area where stellar density is less than one star on the 10000 PS, then again outlined border body will drive approximately the same form, but only in large sizes. This is definitely not talking about the size of a Galaxy. If the border is our star system is where one star falls on 1000 pit space, the diameter of the Galaxy is approximately 30000 a pit, and her tolŝena 2500 SAR. Thus, the Galaxy is indeed highly compressed system: its diameter to 12 times the thickness.

The number of stars in the Galaxy is enormous. On contemporary data it exceeds $ 100 billion, i.e. about 25 times higher than the number of inhabitants of our planet.

All galaxies are divided into three main types:

1) elliptical, denoted e;

2) spiral, denoted S;

3) wrong with the (J)

Elliptical galaxies outwardly the most inexpressive galaxies. They look like smooth ellipses or circles with a gradual decrease in brightness from Center to periphery. Elliptical galaxies are composed of the second type. They are constructed from stars red and yellow red and yellow giants, dwarfs and a number of white stars are not very high luminosity. There are no blue supergiants and Giants, grouping, which could be observed in the form of bright clumps, giving a strukturistost′ system. No matter that dust in those galaxies, where it exists, creates dark bands shading the shape of the star system. So outwardly elliptical galaxies differ from each other mainly single-more or less compression.

As it turned out, very strong compressed elliptical galaxies do not have compression rate, 8, 9 and 10 do not occur. The most compressed elliptical galaxies-is-(e) 7. Some of the compression ratio of 0. Such galaxies is not compressed.

Elliptical galaxies in clusters of galaxies is a giant Galaxy, while elliptical galaxies outside of clusters is a dwarf in the world.

Spiral galaxies are one of the most beautiful types of galaxies in the universe. Spiral galaxies are an example of dynamic form. Their beautiful branches emerging from the central nucleus and how would losing shape outside of galaxies indicate a powerful, rapid movement. Strikes just the variety of forms and patterns of spiral branches.

The kernel of such galaxies are large, typically make up about half of the observed size of the Galaxy.

As a rule, the Galaxy has two spiral branches originating in opposite locations, developing similar symmetrical way and lost in opposite areas of the periphery of the Galaxy.

It is proved that heavily compressed star system during evolution may not be poorly compressed. The opposite is not possible. Mean elliptical galaxies cannot turn into a spiral, a spiral in the elliptical. These two types are different evolutionary path, caused by different compression systems. And different compression due to different numbers of rotation systems. The Galaxy, which when received a sufficient amount of rotation, have strongly compressed form, they have evolved a spiral branch. Galaxies, matter which after the formation had fewer turnovers, was less concise and evolve as elliptical galaxies.

A large number of galaxies is irregular in shape, without any common patterns of structural buildings.

The irregular shape of the Galaxy may be due to the fact that she did not have time to adopt the correct form of the low density of the matter or because of the young age. There is another version: Galaxy may be incorrect due to distortion of forms by the interaction with another Galaxy.

Both of these cases are found among the irregular galaxies, maybe a related Division of irregular galaxies into two subtypes.

The subtype of the J1 is characterized by a relatively high surface brightness and complexity of irregular structure. French astronomer Vokuler in some galaxies of this subtype detected signs of shattered spiral structure. In addition, the Vokuler noticed that the Galaxy of this subtype are often found in pairs. The existence of isolated galaxies as possible. The reason is that an encounter with another Galaxy could have occurred in the past, now the Galaxy parted ways, but to take again the correct form it takes a long time.

The other subtype of the J 2 has a very low surface brightness. This trait makes them stand out among all other types of galaxies. The Galaxy of this subtype is the same lack of pronounced structure.

If the Galaxy has a very low surface brightness in normal linear dimensions, this means that it is very low stellar density, and hence a very low density of matter.

The rotating liquid body under the influence of internal forces in equilibrium takes the form of an ellipsoid. In the general theory of this task, it is shown that under certain conditions between the density of the liquid and the angular rate of rotation ellipsoid can be compressed ellipsoid of rotation, and the oblong ellipsoid line-up, reminiscent of a cigar, or even an igloo.

For a long time, researchers thought that galaxies rotating stellar system coming into balance, must necessarily take the form of a compressed ellipsoid of revolution. However, in 1956, K.f. Ogorodnikov, specially considering the applicability of the theory of figures of equilibrium of liquid solids to stellar systems, concluded that among the stellar systems may be, and such, which took the form of an elongated Triaxial ellipsoid.

Ogorodnikov also gives examples of galaxies, which is likely to take the form of elongated ellipsoid with three axles-cigars, and are not observed with the ribs.

For such galaxies lack kernel-thickening in the central part.

It is needle-like galaxies called the Ogo.

The Galaxy is quite common in the form of steam, but it is much more difficult to figure out whether the observed the couple physically double Galaxy or is it just an optical pair. In double Galaxy movement of one component in orbit around another so slowly that it cannot be noticed even after long-term observations.

Double galaxies catalog was compiled by Swedish astronomer Hol′mberom. He singled out all the pairs of galaxies, whose mutual distance components no more than twice the amount of their diameters.

In the catalog was 695 double galaxies. The vast majority of them physically double galaxies. But on each pair separately, you can say: it is likely that it is physically double Galaxy.

A pair of galaxies can be called physically double in three cases:

1) If your components have a common origin;

2) if the components are dynamically linked, i.e. the sum of the kinetic and potential energy components is negative;

3) if the components are located in the space close to each other.

The components are physically double galaxies are almost the same distance from us. Therefore, beam speed, caused by the expansion of space, they are the same.

3. the concept of Metagalactics.

 The concept of “observable universe” is not entirely clear. It was formed on the basis of analogy with the stars. Observations show that galaxies, stars, like gruppiruûŝimsâ in scattered and globular clusters, also together in groups of varying size-.

But for stars are known for combining higher-order-star system (Galaxy), characteristic of more autonomy, independence from the influence of other bodies, and more used than that of stellar clusters. In particular, all the categories that can be observed with the naked eye in telescopes, form a star system-our Galaxy, which is about 100mld. Members. In the case of galaxies similar to the higher-order system was not directly observed.

However, there is some evidence to suggest that such a system, the observable universe is that it is relatively autonomous and is the Union of the galaxies are about the order, which for stars of our system is Galaxy.

You should assume the existence and other metagalaktik.

Reality metagalactics found guilty, if it is possible to define its boundaries and highlight the observable objects that do not belong to it.

In connection with gipotetičnost′û perceptions of Metagalactics as an autonomous system of giant galaxies, including all observable galaxies and clusters, the term “observable universe” is more often used for ease of vision (using all existing means of observation) of the universe.

The distribution of stars in the sky became the first study in the late Herschel 18. century. The result was a fundamental discovery-the phenomenon of the concentration of stars and Galactic plane.

After approximately a century and a half the time has come to examine the distribution of galaxies in the sky. Did it Free.

The Galaxy to shine, on average, far below the stars. Stars up to 6th apparent magnitude all over the sky, and thousands of galaxies up to 6 years only four. Stars up to 13 about three million, and about seven hundred galaxies. Only then, when there are very few objects, the number of galaxies is great and starts to approach the number of stars the same size.

To have a sufficient quantity of podsčityvaemyh galaxies, you need to use large tools to catch the glitter of faint objects. But that involves additional complexity due to the fact that the weak and faint Galaxy stars not so markedly different from each other as bright stars from bright galaxies. Faint galaxies have very small apparent size and easily when the total rate for the stars.

Free used a 2.5-meter telescope of the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, which has been in the 20 years of the twentieth century, and counts of galaxies up to 20th apparent magnitude in 1283 small sites distributed across the sky. As a result, the number of galaxies in the venues were the smaller, Habla the closer area was located to the milky way. Near the Galactic equator in a strip of width 20, Galaxy, with a few exceptions, are not observed. It can be said that the plane of the Galaxy is the Galaxy plane of devolve and Galactic Equator area a zone of avoidance.[5]

It is clear that other star systems and their millions, cannot be placed in the space on zonnomu, diktuemomu a particular orientation of the symmetry plane of the Milky Way Galaxy, which itself is only one of many stellar systems. Hablu it was clear that in this case there is not the true distribution of galaxies in space, and the distribution of distorted certain conditions of visibility.

In 1953, the French astronomer Vokuler, studying the distribution of galaxies in the sky up to 12-th value, i.e. bright galaxies, found that they certainly are concentrated to a large circle, which is perpendicular to the Galactic Equator. Band thickness 12 around that circle, only 10% of the surface of heaven, includes approximately 2/3 of all the bright galaxies. The number of galaxies at 1 kV. degree in a strip approximately 10 times higher than in areas outside of the band. Science has already had a similar experience when Herschel discovered a concentration of stars in the Galactic plane, has established the existence of our stellar system and determined that it flattened. Vokuler also came to the conclusion about the existence of giant Oblate of galaxies and called her sverhsistemoj galaxies.

The value of sverhsistemy galaxies for the overall structure of the universe. Super-system in size considerably exceeds the clusters of galaxies. The number of galaxies in it, are not in the thousands, as in large flocks, and many tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of reaches.

The diameter of the sverhsistemy can be evaluated within 30 m of a pit. The Galaxy is far from its centre and is close to the edge. Its distance from the outer edge of the sverhsistemy 2-4 m. Sverhsistemy Centre is a cluster of galaxies in Virgo, and that it can be considered as the core of sverhsistemy.

Not only optical radiation galaxies shows the concentration to the plane of the Galaxy sverhsistemy. The total radiation from the sky also discovers an explicit concentration on the same plane. Because the radio sky largely called galaxies, then you can see a confirmation of the reality of sverhsistemy galaxies.



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6. Klymyshyn I.a. Astronomy. M. 1980

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