Posts com Tags ‘Origem da Vida’
terça-feira, março | 6 | 2012
Publicado em: Live Science
7 Theories on the Origin of Life
1- Electric Spark
Origem da Vida por Raios de Relampagos
Electric sparks can generate amino acids and sugars from an atmosphere loaded with water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen, as was shown in the famous Miller-Urey experiment reported in 1953, suggesting that lightning might have helped create the key building blocks of life on Earth in its early days. Over millions of years, larger and more complex molecules could form. Although research since then has revealed the early atmosphere of Earth was actually hydrogen-poor, scientists have suggested that volcanic clouds in the early atmosphere might have held methane, ammonia and hydrogen and been filled with lightning as well.
2- Community Clay
Teoria da Origem da Vida por Cristals na Argila
The first molecules of life might have met on clay, according to an idea elaborated by organic chemist Alexander Graham Cairns-Smith at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. These surfaces might not only have concentrated these organic compounds together, but also helped organize them into patterns much like our genes do now.
The main role of DNA is to store information on how other molecules should be arranged. Genetic sequences in DNA are essentially instructions on how amino acids should be arranged in proteins. Cairns-Smith suggests that mineral crystals in clay could have arranged organic molecules into organized patterns. After a while, organic molecules took over this job and organized themselves.
3- Deep-Sea Vents
Teoria da Origem da Vida nos Respiradouros na Profundidade dos Oceanos
The deep-sea vent theory suggests that life may have begun at submarine hydrothermal vents, spewing key hydrogen-rich molecules. Their rocky nooks could then have concentrated these molecules together and provided mineral catalysts for critical reactions. Even now, these vents, rich in chemical and thermal energy, sustain vibrant ecosystems
4- Chilly Start
Teoria da Origem da Vida do Frio Inicio
Ice might have covered the oceans 3 billion years ago, as the sun was about a third less luminous than it is now. This layer of ice, possibly hundreds of feet thick, might have protected fragile organic compounds in the water below from ultraviolet light and destruction from cosmic impacts. The cold might have also helped these molecules to survive longer, allowing key reactions to happen.
5 – RNA World
Teoria da Origem no Mundo do RNA
Nowadays DNA needs proteins in order to form, and proteins require DNA to form, so how could these have formed without each other? The answer may be RNA, which can store information like DNA, serve as an enzyme like proteins, and help create both DNA and proteins. Later DNA and proteins succeeded this “RNA world,” because they are more efficient. RNA still exists and performs several functions in organisms, including acting as an on-off switch for some genes. The question still remains how RNA got here in the first place. And while some scientists think the molecule could have spontaneously arisen on Earth, others say that was very unlikely to have happened.
Other nucleic acids other than RNA have been suggested as well, such as the more esoteric PNA or TNA.
6 – Simple Beginnings
Teoria da Origem da Vida do Inicio pela Simplicidade
Instead of developing from complex molecules such as RNA, life might have begun with smaller molecules interacting with each other in cycles of reactions. These might have been contained in simple capsules akin to cell membranes, and over time more complex molecules that performed these reactions better than the smaller ones could have evolved, scenarios dubbed “metabolism-first” models, as opposed to the “gene-first” model of the “RNA world” hypothesis.
Teoria da Origem da Vida pela Panspermia
Perhaps life did not begin on Earth at all, but was brought here from elsewhere in space, a notion known as panspermia. For instance, rocks regularly get blasted off Mars by cosmic impacts, and a number of Martian meteorites have been found on Earth that some researchers have controversially suggested brought microbes over here, potentially making us all Martians originally. Other scientists have even suggested that life might have hitchhiked on comets from other star systems. However, even if this concept were true, the question of how life began on Earth would then only change to how life began elsewhere in space.
8 – Evolução Biológica Como Continuidade da Evolução Cosmológica (Matrix/DNA)
Nucleotideos = Galaxias = Células
Diagrama do Software de um Sistema Fechado
Ciclo Vital de Humanos e Astros Celestes
Comment Posted at Live Science Article:
Louis Morelli · New York, New York
There are 8 theories. The last one is “Matrix/DNA Theory”. It suggests a configuration of the building block of galaxies which is the same configuration of a pair of nucleotides, the building block of RNA/DNA. The astronomical building block in this figure is a perfect closed system that works like the best machine. But, attacked by entropy the whole system is fragmented in its “bits-information”, in shape of photons, which are radiated by stars and planet’s nucleus. These photons penetrates atoms of planets surfaces and when there are good conditions, the photons drive the atoms to new combinations reproducing the astronomical system, which final results is the cell system, which has the same configuration of the astronomical building block. Them the theory suggests that the network of photons works like a software, showing the diagram of this software and suggesting that the Universe is like a computer, where Evolution is resulted from the entropic cycles with feed-back between the lightning software and the massive hardware. The theory is surprising because it shows how all life’s properties can be performed in a mechanic arrangement like in astronomy, and electro-magnetic spectrum of light. If you want see the figures, search “the universal matrix.com”.
quarta-feira, setembro | 28 | 2011
Artigo no: TG Daily
Stars create complex organic molecules
Posted on October 28, 2011 – 03:41 by Kate Taylor
“The researchers were investigating a set of infrared emissions detected in stars, interstellar space and galaxies, and known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features.
These signatures were believed to have come from simple organic molecules made of carbon and hydrogen atoms, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.
But, using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kwok and Zhang discovered that the spectra have features that can’t be explained by PAH molecules.
Instead, they say, the substances generating these infrared emissions have chemical structures that are much more complex.
Analysis of the spectra of star dust formed in novae shows that stars are making these complex organic compounds in a matter of weeks, and then ejecting it into the general interstellar space.
Interestingly, this organic star dust is similar in structure to the complex organic compounds found in meteorites, and could form their source. Thus, it’s possible that life on Earth developed from this organic star dust.”
Comentário da Matrix/DNA:
Como vemos no grafico do espectro de luz, o infra-vermelho corresponde à fase entre jovem/adulto. Como vemos nos modêlos da Matrix/DNA, os fótons-genes que compuseram as moléculas da Vida vieram de dois lugares: a) do nucleo do planeta (os 50% correspondentes à face esquerda, ou seja, do nascimento à juventude), e b) das estrêlas ( os 50% que correspondem à face direita, ou seja, do adulto ao cadáver). A noticia acima está sugerindo que as estr6elas geram compostos complexos de moléculas orgânicas, os quais emitem no infra-vermelho. É uma confirmação exata dos modêlos, tanto em relação à astro-biofisica quanto à teoria da luz como fórmula do ciclo vital!
sexta-feira, setembro | 23 | 2011
Artigo baseado em:
http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-134634.html#p134634 (Vide abaixo o texto)
A Morte Tem a Resposta para como foi a Origem da Vida
Se não podemos voltar atrás, a 3,5 bilhões de anos, para ver como a Vida começou, podemos ver aqui e agora quando ela termina, ou seja, assistindo a morte de um ser vivo, e saber como ela não começou apenas pelas fôrças físicas do mundo pré-biótico e nem com a contribuição das propriedades químicas na abiogênese.
Nos ultimos momentos antes da morte todas as moléculas bioquimicas do corpo ainda estão intactas e funcionando. No justo momento da morte elas ainda estão lá, mas no momento que os mecanismos regulatórios do organismo cessam, as moléculas começam a se desintegrarem.
Em outras palavras, as leis naturais da Física, da Quimica e da Termo-Dinâmica continuam operando mas sem a diretriz reguladora que foi agora removida, e o resultado é degeneração, desintegração, rumo às suas menores partes constituintes.
Portanto, o curso natural que as leis naturais seguem, é o de destruir as moléculas bioquimicas. Mais exatamente, é o de eliminar os vínculos entre os átomos que os organizam bioquimicamente. Desde que êste é o caso comprovado, como podem aquelas mesmas leis naturais guiarem a construção de vida celular, e quanto mais, o organismo inteiro ?!
Elas tem que serem dirigidas e forçadas a seguirem um diferente caminho para serem bem suscedidas na geração da vida. E o agente desta nova direção tem que ser o mesmo que mantem o organismo regulado e vivo. Ou seja: as leis naturais da organização vital já existiam antes da origem da vida. Claro!
Conclusão: seja lá o que for a vida, ela certamente não é parte constituinte da Física ou da Quimica.
Esta é a razão porque a visão naturalista da origem da vida sem algo como a fórmula da Matrix/DNA, sem a visão sistêmica e diferentes modêlos atômicos e astronômicos, é cientificamente ininteligivel. E portanto, a Teoria do RNA-World, tal como está elaborada, é equivocada e/ou incompleta.
Os cientistas da NASA compreenderam isto muito bem, quando emitiram um reporte estabelecendo que ” não existe plausível hipótese de rotas para formação de moléculas bioquímicas complexas, nem quimicamente nem termodinamicamente.”
A NASA emitiu êste reporte a contra-gôsto, foi forçada a isso pela quantidade de evidências. Se existe uma organização necessitada de dar uma explicação natural para a origem da vida esta é justamente a NASA. Lutando contra a escassez de fundos, se êles provassem que as leis naturais conhecidas, apenas por si só, podem dar inicio ao processo e desenvolvimento da vida, que resolveram o mistério da abiogênesis, e como êles estão envolvidos nesta pesquisa principalmente em astrobiologia, receberiam todos os fundos que necessitam. Mas seus administradores e cientistas foram obrigados a se curvarem perante o óbvio.
Comentário postado por Matrix/DNA sob o artigo:
Jack, thanks by the existence of this blog, very helpful,
The RNA-World Theory became a scientific joke also. No? For instance, comments about this, please:
See the discussion between Craig Venter, Church and Shapiro, in this video
And haw do you refute this argument, for instance?
Theories – Origin of Life
At the moment just prior to death all the biochemical molecules in the dog are still functioning and intact.
At the very moment of death they are still there, however as you rightly point out the regulatory mechanisms cease and the molecules begin to disintegrate.
In other words, the natural laws of physics, chemistry and thermodynamics continue operating but without the guiding regulation that has now been removed, and the result is degeneration, down to their constituent parts.
Therefore the natural course that natural laws take, breakdown biochemical molecules.
Since that is the case how can those same laws naturally guide the building of cellular life let alone the whole organisms
They have to be guided down the different regulated pathways if they are to succeed.
So whatever life is, it is certainly not a constituent part of physics or chemistry.
That is why a naturalist view of the origin of life is scientifically untenable.
That is also why NASA has been forced to draw the conclusion it has.
If any organisation needed a natural explanation to life’s origin it is they. Just think of all the funding they would receive if they could. There is every incentive for them to prove that they have conquered the problem of Abiogenesis, and if they were able to then I will let you speculate on the news headlines!!
And you said: “… if you truly believe you’re onto something, make the most of it and stick to the proper method of conducting science.”
There is no climate for the proper method of conducting science as the supreme goals of the founding fathers, in the Illuminist Movement: science for the search of knowledge about the meaning of existence (against the meaning sold by the church). There is no funding for such enterprise.
First of all, we should go back to Oparin and Stanley/Urey experiment. Why those amino acids do not realize the next step in the lab, becoming proteins and RNA? What is missing in the Urey ingredients? What are determining, in this primordial soup, that life is only left-handed?
Second: We need to fall under the logic that the first complete biological system appeared in a given state of the world. If we bet that there are no supernatural causes, and we are not seeing links between the state of the world and biological systems, we need to understand that our theoretical models of the world are not right (mainly our cosmological models).
I am trying to return to the goals of the founding fathers. The result today is the Matrix/DNA Theory models. It is a suggestion of what is missing in the Urey ingredients. I am making the most of it and sticking to the proper method of conducting naturalism. I am sure nobody has proved facts for debunking the models. But, the deviation of scientific method is too big that the brains today are hard-wired for to escape from a different viewpoint and a return to the thru naturalism.
terça-feira, agosto | 9 | 2011
Xanthine em Meteóritos
Hypoxanthine em Meteóritos
Porque esta corrida na busca das origens da Vida é importante tambem para Você:
Pessoas deístas ou não-especializadas em Ciências tendem a negligenciar êste assunto que constantemente está vindo nas manchetes porque acham que isso é assunto de desocupados que deveriam estarem gastando nosso dinheiro e ocupando seu tempo na busca de soluções para os problemas práticos urgentes. Mas devem lembrarem-se que existem muitos hoje em dia gastando nosso dinheiro em luxúria e supérfluos que com certeza nada vão adicionar à Humanidade. Esta atividade tem sim, muitas utilidades práticas e atuais, a primeira sendo que nesta busca vai se penetrando mais fundo em dimensões da Natureza não alcançadas pelos nossos sentidos sensoriais e com isso entendendo melhor o que é o mundo, a existência, o que o mundo quer de nós para nos recompensar e não destruir-nos, e principalmente, descobrindo sempre novos mecanismos da Natureza, os quais são reaplicados na evolução da tecnologia e no combate às doenças. Veja, por exemplo, abaixo, como esta nova descoberta da NASA está sugerindo uma nova abordagem para entender e combater o mosquito causador da malária. Por isso êste assunto está aqui na Matrix/DNA.
Alguns cientistas estão começando a falar a linguagem da Matrix/DNA. Sem terem conhecimento dos modêlos e da cosmovisão desta teoria estão praticamente repetindo coisas que dissemos aqui e a 20 anos atrás quando interpretei os modêlos. Por exemplo, vejamos esta frase do Dr. David Rothery, diretor do Planetary Science and the Search for Life at the Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomical Research, na Inglaterra.
“Êstes resultados adicionam pêso à idéia de que os building blocks da vida estão espalhados em nosso sistema solar, e presumivelmente também em outros sistemas planetários. O que é importante é se os ingredientes ocorrem frequentemente para se fazer inevitável que a vida iniciará em qualquer lugar que reuna as condições necessárias, e isto está parecendo o mais provável”
Os modêlos da Matrix/DNA sugerem que as partículas-informação para erigir sistemas biológicos provêm da entropia dos astros, os quais apresentam um ciclo vital que constitui um circuito sistêmico exatamente igual a um par de bases de nucleotídeos. Portanto a vida pode começar em qualquer lugar de qualquer galáxia. Mas nas Ciências ainda predomina a idéia de que êstes ingredientes básicos se organizaram em um unico ponto num unico lugar e num unico momento. Está errado, segundo a Matrix/DNA, e o equívoco acontece porque desconhecem o aspecto “vital” dos astros.
Vejamos a noticia, tal como foi publicada em VEJA:
Meteoritos podem conter elementos de DNA
Uma nova pesquisa sobre dez meteoritos ricos em carbono mostra que contêm alguns elementos básicos de DNA, confirmando a hipótese segundo a qual a vida na Terra poderia ter vindo do espaço.
Cientistas haviam detectado elementos de DNA em meteoritos desde os anos 60, mas não tinham certeza sobre se sua criação ocorrera no espaço ou resultava de uma contaminação, ao contato com a vida na Terra.
Este último estudo, presente na mais recente edição dos Anais da Academia Americana de Ciências (PNAS) de 8 a 12 de agosto, comprova que nucleobases, os elementos constitutivos do DNA, chegaram realmente à Terra em meteoritos, em grande quantidade e diversidade.
Esta última descoberta aumenta o número crescente de indicações, segundo as quais as reações químicas no interior dos meteoritos e nos cometas podem produzir elementos essenciais de moléculas biológicas, destacam os autores.
Pesquisadores haviam, anteriormente, encontrado aminoácidos em amostras de elementos provenientes do cometa Wild 2, como parte da missão Stardust, da Nasa.
Os aminoácidos são indispensáveis à produção de proteínas, a molécula da vida.
Para esta última pesquisa, os cientistas analisaram amostras de 12 meteoritos ricos em carbono, nove deles encontrados na Antártica.
Também encontraram adenina e guanina, nucleobases do DNA.
Os cientistas descobriram pela primeira vez em dois desses meteoritos restos de três moléculas ligadas a “nucleobases análogas”.
Essas últimas aportam a primeira prova de que esses elementos constatados em dois meteoritos provêm mesmo do espaço e não de uma contaminação terrestre.
Com efeito, nenhuma dessas nucleobases análogas foi detectada em amostras de gelo e de solo coletadas perto da zona de impacto dos meteoritos portadores.
E aqui um trecho da noticia no Cosmos Magazine:
The findings suggest that life was partly created in space, essentially meaning that strands of DNA are in fact alien in origin.
“These results add weight to the idea that the building blocks for life are widespread in our Solar System, and presumably also in and around other planetary systems, commented David Rothery, chair of Planetary Science and the Search for Life at the Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomical Research in the UK.
“What’s important is whether the ingredients occur often enough to make it well-nigh inevitable that life will get started wherever there is a suitable habitat, and this is looking increasingly likely.”
( Veja excelente/crítico comentário sôbre esta noticia em:
SITE INOVAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA. Fragmentos de DNA no meteorito e a busca pela origem da vida. 10/08/2011. Online. Disponível em www.inovacaotecnologica.com.br/noticias/noticia.php?artigo=fragmentos-dna-meteorito-origem-vida. )
COMENTÁRIO DA MATRIX/DNA, postado na VEJA:
Esta informação não confirma a hipótese que a vida veio do espaço. Existem ao menos mais duas alternativas igualmente possíveis:
1) se elementos do DNA podem aparecer em meteóritos e cometas, porque não tambem em planetas?;
2) A vida não veio do espaço (esta é a teoria da panspermia), não houve “origem” da Vida, os seres vivos são sistemas biológicos e apenas produto da evolução dos sistemas astronomicos, ao qual a Terra pertence (esta é a teoria da Matrix/DNA).
Na sua responsabilidade a imprensa tem que evitar ser o porta-voz de ideologias que amanhã podem estarem no curriculum escolar formando a mentalidade dos jovens, os quais, ao serem doutrinados em visões do mundo equivocadas perdem a livre iniciativa de pensar e buscar a verdade por si mesmos.
Esta é uma oportunidade para pesquisadores brasileiros. A crença de que a Vida veio do espaço está crescendo porque não conseguem fazerem os aminoácidos de Urey darem o próximo passo que seria formarem proteínas e RNA. Desistem dêsse caminho e buscam outras soluções para as origens da Vida e conhecimento de importantes mecanismos naturais. Mas no Amazonas nós descobrimos a possibilidade da existência da Matrix/DNA e seria esta fórmula que estaria faltando ser aplicada aos aminoácidos elaborados na Terra. Vale a pena tentar êste caminho, pois se acertar-mos, recuperamos o atraso cientifico do Brasil e colocamos o país na vanguarda de uma nova Ciência. ( veja a fórmula no site da “A Matriz Universal dos Sistemas Naturais e Ciclos Vitais”).
Tradução do comentário em Inglês:
This information does not confirm the hypothesis that life came from space. There are at least two equally possible alternatives:
A) If DNA’s elements can appear in meteorites and comets, why not also on planets?;
2) Life did not come from space (this is the theory of panspermia), but from the evolution of the whole space as a system. There was no “origin” of life, living beings are biological systems and only product of the evolution of astronomical systems, to which the Earth belongs (this is the Matrix / DNA Theory).
The press has a responsibility to avoid being the spokesman of ideologies that tomorrow may be in the school curriculum forming the minds of young people who, when they are indoctrinated with wrong views of the world lose their own initiative to think and seek the truth themselves.
This is an opportunity for “thinkers outside the box” researchers. The belief that life came from space is growing because they can not make the Urey’s amino acids making the next step that should be to form proteins and RNA. So, they did give up this way and are seeking another solutions to the origins of life and knowledge of important natural mechanisms. But in the Amazon we have discovered the possibility of the existence of the Matrix / DNA and would be this formula that is missing for the amino acids produced in the Earth. (See the formula on the website of “The Matrix Universal Vital Natural Systems and Cycles”).
A seguir, a noticia original da NASA, analizada segundo uma breve olhada nos mod6elos da Matrix/DNA;
NASA Researchers: DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space – 08.08.11
NASA-funded researchers have evidence that some building blocks of DNA, the molecule that carries the genetic instructions for life, found in meteorites were likely created in space. The research gives support to the theory that a “kit” of ready-made parts created in space and delivered to Earth by meteorite and comet impacts assisted the origin of life.
Matrix/DNA: Realmente a pesquisa reforça a teoria de que teria sido necessário à Terra receber alguns ingredientes elaborados em algum outro lugar porque aqui não haveria condições para os building blocks aqui elaborados dessem os passos seguintes formadores de proteínas e RNA. Mas a teoria citada não considera a hipótese da Matrix/DNA, a qual sugere algumas diferenças no atual modêlo teórico sôbre sistemas estelares e galácticos que capacitariam à dupla Sol+Terra darem êstes passos. Êste impasse apenas poderá ser resolvido se experimentalmente aplicar-se os modêlos da Matrix/DNA sôbre a matéria inorganica/organica terrestre e obter-se as tais proteínnas, ou então acompanhar a chegada das fotos do espaço que vêm quase que diáriamente mostrando novos tipos de astros, cujo conjunto um dia poderá provar ou desaprovar os modêlos da Matrix/DNA ou da corrente teoria acadêmica.
“People have been discovering components of DNA in meteorites since the 1960′s, but researchers were unsure whether they were really created in space or if instead they came from contamination by terrestrial life,” said Dr. Michael Callahan of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. “For the first time, we have three lines of evidence that together give us confidence these DNA building blocks actually were created in space.” Callahan is lead author of a paper on the discovery appearing in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
The discovery adds to a growing body of evidence that the chemistry inside asteroids and comets is capable of making building blocks of essential biological molecules. For example, previously, these scientists at the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory have found amino acids in samples of comet Wild 2 from NASA’s Stardust mission, and in various carbon-rich meteorites. Amino acids are used to make proteins, the workhorse molecules of life, used in everything from structures like hair to enzymes, the catalysts that speed up or regulate chemical reactions.
Matrix/DNA: Segundo nossos modêlos, não existe a propagada explosão de astros como geralmente sugerem noticias baseadas no atual modêlo cosmológico. Segundo nossos modêlos, meteóritos provêm de duas fontes: a) cometas desfeitos que não adentraram buracos negros, e, b) cadáveres estelares em decomposição. Nos dois casos devem existir enorme potencial latente para produzir os building blocks biológicos, principalmente nos meteóritos provenientes de cometas, os quais possuíriam energia em estado mais intenso de prosseguimento do circuito sistêmico. Mas nos dois casos, “provávelmente”, tais meteóritos trariam apenas os buildings blocks relacionados à sua meia-face da Matrix, ou seja, dos cometas para a meia-face esquerda e dos detritos estelares para a meia-face direita. De qualquer forma, esta pista pode nos ajudar a solucionar os segrêdos, se constatar-mos que os ingredientes são apenas de uma meia-face ou outra.
In the new work, the Goddard team ground up samples of twelve carbon-rich meteorites, nine of which were recovered from Antarctica. They extracted each sample with a solution of formic acid and ran them through a liquid chromatograph, an instrument that separates a mixture of compounds. They further analyzed the samples with a mass spectrometer, which helps determine the chemical structure of compounds.
The team found adenine and guanine, which are components of DNA called nucleobases, as well as hypoxanthine and xanthine. DNA resembles a spiral ladder; adenine and guanine connect with two other nucleobases to form the rungs of the ladder. They are part of the code that tells the cellular machinery which proteins to make. Hypoxanthine and xanthine are not found in DNA, but are used in other biological processes.
Matrix/DNA: Ok… isto significa que temos mais trabalho a fazer. É mencionado aqui o nome de dois elementos que precisaremos pesquisar o que se sabe a respeito dêles: hypoxanthine e xanthine.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. It is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids where it is present in the anticodon of tRNA in the form of its nucleoside inosine. It has a tautomer known as 6-Hydroxypurine. Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain cell, bacteria, and parasite cultures as a substrate and nitrogen source. For example, it is commonly a required reagent in malaria parasite cultures, since Plasmodium falciparum requires a source of hypoxanthine for nucleic acid synthesis and energy metabolism. In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting hypoxanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, may have been formed extraterrestrially in outer space.
Hypoxanthine em Meteóritos
Ora, esta fórmula imediatamente nos mostra que a Matrix é repetida duas vêzes e nas duas predomina o nitrogênio, um elemento com numero atômico 7, portanto pertencente à meia-face direita da Matrix ( uma face entrópica, relacionada á morte dos sistemas, prova disso como vamos ver a seguir é que a hypoxanthine é necessária para constituir o veneno da malária). (Não se esquecendo que vale apena dar uma olhada em Wikipedia para recordar o que é purine e seus derivados)
Então temos que recapitular algo do Nitrogênio:
Nitrogen is the largest single constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere (78.082% by volume of dry air, 75.3% by weight in dry air). It is created by fusion processes in stars, and is estimated to be the seventh most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe.
Molecular nitrogen and nitrogen compounds have been detected in interstellar space by astronomers using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Molecular nitrogen is a major constituent of the Saturnian moon Titan’s thick atmosphere, and occurs in slightly appreciable to trace amounts in other planetary atmospheres.
Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. It typically makes up around 4% of the dry weight of plant matter, and around 3% of the weight of the human body. It is a large component of animal waste (for example, guano), usually in the form of urea, uric acid, ammonium compounds, and derivatives of these nitrogenous products, which are essential nutrients for all plants that cannot fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Matrix/DNA: Bingo! Nitrogênio é criado na fusão de estrêlas, justamente a Função 6 da Matrix, onde começa a meia-face direita e o principio entrópico. E é encontrado nos excrementos de animais, ou seja, produtos entrópicos. Tudo está indicando que êstes meteóritos vieram de alguma estrêla morta. E sugere que a hypoxanthine é uma molécula right-handed… será mesmo? Onde podemos ver isso? A palavra “”inosine” nos leva às riboses das quais se diz que: “Ribose is an organic compound. The term may refer to any of two enantiomers: almost always to D-ribose, which occurs widely in nature and is discussed here; or to its synthetic mirror image L-ribose, which is not found in nature and is of limited interest”. Ok… mas hypoxanthine é produzida apenas no espaço onde L é muito encontrado).
O fato de que nitrogenio seja o maior constituinte de uma lua sugere que luas seriam formadas a partir de detritos estelares dispersos que não foram aborvidos no vórtice reciclador?! É possível.
Voltemos à hypoxanthine:
“Plasmodium falciparum requires a source of hypoxanthine for nucleic acid synthesis and energy metabolism”. Humm… tenho um interêsse extra nisso, pois como vitima da malária no Amazonas onde peguei o virus vivax mas tambem o falciparum ( que é a forma menos mortal da doença) me interessa agarrar os calcanhares desta pesquisa para tentar aniquilar estas pestes). A coisa continua a fazer sentido sob a luz da Matrix/DNA, pois êstes virus tem ação entrópica).
Vamos agora à “Xanthine”:
Xanthine em Meteóritos
Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. A number of stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine.
Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation.
Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme.
Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil, were formed extraterrestrially.
Matrix/DNA: Ótimo! Xanthine é produto da degradação. Face direita e entropia na cabeça! E vemos novamente a predominancia de nitrogênio. Tudo isto merece um estudo mais detalhado, a ser feito quando tiver-mos tempo, se Deus quiser. (…Êpa!… Deus? … Um agnóstico deu uma escorregada aqui, mas por favor, não conte para ninguém…).
Voltando ao artigo da NASA:
Also, in two of the meteorites, the team discovered for the first time trace amounts of three molecules related to nucleobases: purine, 2,6-diaminopurine, and 6,8-diaminopurine; the latter two almost never used in biology. These compounds have the same core molecule as nucleobases but with a structure added or removed.
It’s these nucleobase-related molecules, called nucleobase analogs, which provide the first piece of evidence that the compounds in the meteorites came from space and not terrestrial contamination. “You would not expect to see these nucleobase analogs if contamination from terrestrial life was the source, because they’re not used in biology, aside from one report of 2,6-diaminopurine occurring in a virus (cyanophage S-2L),” said Callahan. “However, if asteroids are behaving like chemical ‘factories’ cranking out prebiotic material, you would expect them to produce many variants of nucleobases, not just the biological ones, due to the wide variety of ingredients and conditions in each asteroid.”
The second piece of evidence involved research to further rule out the possibility of terrestrial contamination as a source of these molecules. The team also analyzed an eight-kilogram (17.64-pound) sample of ice from Antarctica, where most of the meteorites in the study were found, with the same methods used on the meteorites. The amounts of the two nucleobases, plus hypoxanthine and xanthine, found in the ice were much lower — parts per trillion — than in the meteorites, where they were generally present at several parts per billion. More significantly, none of the nucleobase analogs were detected in the ice sample. One of the meteorites with nucleobase analog molecules fell in Australia, and the team also analyzed a soil sample collected near the fall site. As with the ice sample, the soil sample had none of the nucleobase analog molecules present in the meteorite.
Thirdly, the team found these nucleobases — both the biological and non-biological ones — were produced in a completely non-biological reaction. “In the lab, an identical suite of nucleobases and nucleobase analogs were generated in non-biological chemical reactions containing hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and water. This provides a plausible mechanism for their synthesis in the asteroid parent bodies, and supports the notion that they are extraterrestrial,” says Callahan.
“In fact, there seems to be a ‘goldilocks’ class of meteorite, the so-called CM2 meteorites, where conditions are just right to make more of these molecules,” adds Callahan.
The team includes Callahan and Drs. Jennifer C. Stern, Daniel P. Glavin, and Jason P. Dworkin of NASA Goddard’s Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory; Ms. Karen E. Smith and Dr. Christopher H. House of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.; Dr. H. James Cleaves II of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC; and Dr. Josef Ruzicka of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Somerset, N.J. The research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, the NASA Astrobiology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.
( Anexo existe um interessante vídeo)
quarta-feira, maio | 18 | 2011
Por terem revirado muitas hipóteses e nunca encontrarem uma explicação pelas leis da biologia para um conjunto de trechos no DNA, alguns cientistas cada vez mais suspeitam que a resposta seria extraterrestrial origem. A Teoria da Matriz/DNA, muito antes de formularem essa hipótese, veio com uma sugestão inédita e inclusive diferente da Teoria da Panspermia. Tendo observado o mesmo padrão de circuíto sistêmico em sistemas existentes antes das origens da vida na Terra, e percebendo que o circuito se encaixa perfeitamente no nucleotideo, nossos modêlos sugerem que os 300 genes que surgiram no primeiro ser vivo não apenas registraram a história da biogênesis na Terra, mas sim a história universal desde o Big Bang. Portanto, de uma maneira inesperada descobrimos uma outra possibilidade alem da acreditada por estes cientistas, de que seres alienigenas teriam vindo aqui semear a vida na Terra. O artigo abaixo não foi por mim estudado por falta de tempo, mas urge que fique aqui registrado para sê-lo assim que puder.
Scientists find Extraterrestrial genes in Human DNA
The Canadian Blog
A group of researchers working at the Human Genome Project indicate that they made an astonishing scientific discovery: They believe so-called 97% non-coding sequences in human DNA is no less than genetic code of extraterrestrial life forms.
The non-coding sequences are common to all living organisms on Earth, from moulds to fish to humans. In human DNA, they constitute larger part of the total genome, says Prof. Sam Chang, the group leader. Non-coding sequences, originally known as “junk DNA”, were discovered years ago, and their function remained a mystery. The overwhelming majority of Human DNA is “Off-world” in origin. The apparent “extraterrestrial junk genes” merely “enjoy the ride” with hard working active genes, passed from generation to generation.
After comprehensive analysis with the assistance of other scientists, computer programmers, mathematicians, and other learned scholars, Professor Chang had
wondered if the apparently “junk Human DNA” was created by some kind of “extraterrestrial programmer”. The alien chunks within Human DNA, Professor Chang further observes, “have its own veins, arteries, and its own immune system that vigorously resists all our anti-cancer drugs.”
Professor Chang further stipulates that “Our hypothesis is that a higher extraterrestrial life form was engaged in creating new life and planting it on various planets. Earth is just one of them. Perhaps, after programming, our creators grow us the same way we grow bacteria in Petri dishes. We can’t know their motives – whether it was a scientific experiment, or a way of preparing new planets for colonization, or is it long time ongoing business of seedling life in the universe.”
Professor Chang further indicates that “If we think about it in our human terms, the apparent “extraterrestrial programmers” were most probably working on “one big code” consisting of several projects, and the projects should have produced various life forms for various planets. They have been also trying various solutions. They wrote “the big code“, executed it, did not like some function, changed them or added new one, executed again, made more improvements, tried again and again.”
Professor Chang’s team of researchers furthermore concludes that, “The apparent “extraterrestrial programmers” may have been ordered to cut all their idealistic plans for the future when they concentrated on the “Earth project” to meet the pressing deadline. Very likely in an apparent rush, the “extraterrestrial programmers” may have cut down drastically on big code and delivered basic program intended for Earth.“
Professor Chang is only one of many scientists and other researchers who have discovered extraterrestrial origins to Humanity.
Professor Chang and his research colleagues show that apparent “extraterrestrial programming” gaps in DNA sequencing precipitated by a hypothesized rush to create human life on Earth presented humankind with illogical growth of mass of cells we know as cancer.”
Professor Chang further indicates that “What we see in our DNA is a program consisting of two versions, a big code and basic code.” Mr. Chang then affirms that the “First fact is, the complete ‘program’ was positively not written on Earth; that is now a verified fact. The second fact is, that genes by themselves are not enough to explain evolution; there must be something more in ‘the game‘.”
“Soon or later”, Professor Chang says “we have to come to grips with the unbelievable notion that every life on Earth carries genetic code for his extraterrestrial cousin and that evolution is not what we think it is.”
Human Genome Project Discovery Implications associated with “Human-looking Extraterrestrials”
The implications of these scientific finds would reinforce claims by other scientists and observers of having contact with ‘off-world’ human looking extraterrestrials.
The ‘off-world’ human looking extraterrestrial have been claimed to have provided some of the genetic material for human evolution, and that many of these extraterrestrials have allowed some of their personnel to incarnate as ‘star seeds’ on Earth in human families. These “star seeds“, “star children” or “star people” are described by Brad and Francie Steiger as individuals whose ‘souls’ were formally incarnated on the worlds of other star systems and then traveled to Earth and decided to incarnate here in order to “boost” the spiritual evolutionary development of humanity. Most of humanity would consider this group of extraterrestrials to be ‘benevolent’ as described by ‘contactees’ such as George Adamski, Orfeo Angelucci, George Van Tassell, Howard Menger, Paul Villa, Billy Meier and Alex Collier who each explain the nature of their voluntary interactions with these human looking extraterrestrials. These “contactees” often provide physical evidence in the form of photographs, film and/or witnesses of their contacts with extraterrestrial races. The most extensively documented and researched contactee is Eduard ‘Billy’ Meier who provided much physical evidence for investigators.
Representations concerning ‘Ancient astronauts’
Indeed, ‘ancient astronaut’ writers believe that a race of intelligent extraterrestrial beings visited and/or colonised Earth in the remote past, whereupon they upgraded the primitive hominid Homo erectus by means of genetic engineering to create the human race as we know it: Homo sapiens.
Evidence for this idea is found (a) in the improbability of Homo sapiens emerging so suddenly, according to the principles of orthodox Darwinism; and (b) in the myths of ancient civilisations which describe human-like gods coming down from the heavens and creating mankind ‘in their own image’.Homo sapiens is thus regarded as a hybrid being, incorporating a mix of terrestrial genes from Homo erectus and extraterrestrial genes from an ascribed “race of the gods“.
Prior to the modern age of space travel and genetics, this theory for the origins of humankind could not have been conceived. And even now, in the 21st century, there are many people who would regard it as science fiction. However, in the light of the problems with the orthodox theory of human evolution, the idea of a genetic intervention by an intelligent human-like species (who themselves evolved on another planet over a more credible time frame) does require to be taken seriously as a potential solution to the mystery.
The most famous exponents of the ancient astronaut intervention are the Swiss writer Erich von Daniken and the American writer Zecharia Sitchin. The latter, in particular, has argued the case in great detail.
Representation by academics from “Exopolitics” groups
Dr. Micheal E. Salla is one of the founders of an Exopolitics movement which seeks an open and informed dialogue on, and with, Extraterrestrials, toward the affirmation of “global democracy” and the quality-of-living of humankind as socially responsible beings in the Universe. Dr. Salla indicates that “There are an extensive number of extraterrestrial races known [by various research institutions and agencies] to be currently interacting with Earth and the human population.
Dr. Salla, is also the author of Exopolitics: Political Implications of the Extraterrestrial Presence (Dandelion Books, 2004). He has held full time academic appointments at the Australian National University, and American University, Washington DC. He has a Ph.D. in Government from the University of Queensland, Australia. During his professional academic career, he was best known for organizing a series of citizen diplomacy initiatives for the East Timor conflict funded by U.S. Institute of Peace and the Ford Foundation. He is also the Founder of the Exopolitics Institute ; and Chief Editor of the ‘Exopolitics Journal’ and Convener of the “Extraterrestrial Civilizations and World Peace Conference.”
In a 1998 interview, Clifford Stone, a retired U.S. army Sergeant who served in the U.S. Army for 22 years and allegedly participated in operations to retrieve crashed extraterrestrial ships and extraterrestrial biological entities (EBE’s), revealed there were a variety of extraterrestrial races known [by various institutions and agencies]”. Dr. Salla further elaborates that “The most compelling testimonies on the different extraterrestrial races comes from ‘whistleblowers’ such as Sergeant Stone; and also ‘contactees’ who have had direct physical contact with extraterrestrials and communicated with them.”
Dr. Salla further notes that Master Sergeant Bob Dean had a twenty seven year distinguished career in very senior areas of the military indicates that among the know extraterrestrials one group “looked so much like us they could sit next to you on a plane or in a restaurant and you’d never know the difference.”
Apparently “Human extraterrestrial races can easily integrate with human society in the manner described by Dean and others where they can be indistinguishable from the rest of humanity.” Dr. Salla corroborates.
According to Alex Collier who claims to be a “contactee“, “a variety of extraterrestrial races have provided genetic material for the ‘human experiment‘. “ Alex Collier indicates that “Earth humans” are “a product of extraterrestrial genetic manipulation, and are possessors of a vast gene pool consisting of many different racial memory banks, also consisting of at least 22 different races.”
Alleged Human ET efforts to promote the unity of humanity through religious spirituality
Alex Collier further claims that constituents of “Human ETs” seek to “ensure that global humanity evolves in a responsible way without endangering both itself and the greater galactic community of which it is part. “ Exopolitics groups and independent contactees also indicate that constituents of “Human ETs” seek to “uplift human consciousness and to promote the unity of religion.”
Alex Colliers alleged contact with ETs suggest that fundamentalist messages in from Christianity to Judaism to Islam, and other institutionalized religions, as well as outright apparent ‘cult’ groups, have been specifically placed by “hostile elements” to manipulate and control humankind.
Jesus, who many groups allege was a “Human ET” sought to inspire the social consciousness of humankind toward unity, and not to create a “Christian religion”, with its sexually repressive as well as homophobic undertones, which also have been used for the execution of racism, and to legitimate atrocities like the ‘slave trade‘.
ETs who allegedly contacted Alex Collier, also further allegedly stipulate that Jesus did in fact live; and lived out the rest of his life in Massada; and that Jesus was only crucified through the religious doctrine, and myth-making associated with ‘the palms‘.
As far as the “saviour scenario” is concerned, for example, Alex Collier was allegedly told by ETs that it has been put into our belief systems to “disempower us.” The saviour scenario within the dogma of institutionalized religions legitimate the creation of an elite-driven oppressive power structure who appoint themselves as “judgers of morality“. These religious elites have historically used their self-appointed roles to execute a comprehensive system of social controls that complement their joint pursuit of greed-oriented self-aggrandizement with other elites from government to business enterprises.
The alleged efforts of socially progressive Human ETs to inspire the affirmation of the quality-of-living of ‘Earth Humans’ through spiritual and other “emissaries”, have been undermined by the efforts of “capitalists” to exploit such alleged initiatives in the pursuit of an oppressive agenda of greed and fascistic power.
Constituents of Human ETs allegedly seek to “help humanity find freedom from oppressive structures through education and consciousness raising.”
Allegations of “Human ET” encounters on Earth
In Dr. Salla’s article “Extraterrestrials Among Us” published in October 2006, he alleges that, “There is startling evidence from a number of independent sources that ‘human looking’ extraterrestrial visitors have integrated with and lived in major population centres up until recently, and this is known by a select number of institutions.
Aside from whistleblower testimonies, like Sergeant Major Robert Dean, a number of private individuals claim to have encountered extraterrestrials posing as ordinary citizens in major cities around the planet.
George Adamski was the first to write about extraterrestrials secretly living among the human population. In his second non-fiction book describing his extraterrestrial contact experiences, “Inside the Flying Saucers“, Adamski discussed how human looking extraterrestrials had established a presence among the human population. “They apparently looked so much like us”, Dr. Salla notes “that they could get jobs, lived in neighbourhoods, drove cars, and could blend in easily with the human population.”
Dr. Salla further notes that “Adamski wrote about how they contacted him to set up meetings that led to his famous flights aboard extraterrestrial vehicles.” But as Dr. Salla explains “While controversy over Adamski’s contact experiences and his credibility continues, Adamski’s UFO sightings and contacts with extraterrestrials were supported by an impressive collection of witnesses, photographs and films that a number of independent investigators concluded were not hoaxes.”
Dr. Salla additionally stipulates that “Adamski’s testimony offers important insights into how extraterrestrials may be living incognito among the human population. After discussing the Adamski case and the strongest evidence supporting it, Dr. Salla in that article further discusses other contactees similarly claiming to have encountered extraterrestrials acting like ordinary citizens. Finally, Dr. Salla in “Extraterrestrials Among Us” examines the official testimony of a number of whistleblowers concerning knowledge that extraterrestrials live among ordinary Earth-bound individuals.
Contact Testimonies of ‘Extraterrestrials Among Us’
Adamski’s famous “Desert Center” meeting with an extraterrestrial emerging from a ‘scout ship’ on November 20, 1952 was apparently seen by six witnesses who signed affidavits confirming Adamski’s version of events in his subsequent book, The Flying Saucers have Landed (1953). In fact, four of the witnesses immediately reported what had happened to a nearby newspaper, the Phoenix Gazette,that published a story on November 24 featuring photos and sketches. The Desert Center encounter was among those of Adamski’s claims regarding extraterrestrial contact that, according to UFO researcher Timothy Good, were “accurately reported,” and “sensible and verifiable”, as footnotes by Dr. Salla. Given the clear supporting evidence supporting Adamski’s first meeting with an extraterrestrial traveling in a scout craft, it is worth examining closely his alleged subsequent meetings with extraterrestrials living on Earth.
In the first chapter of Inside the Flying Saucers, Dr. Salla re-visits Adamski’s testimony of his meeting with two extraterrestrials while he was sitting in the lobby of a Los Angeles Hotel on February 18, 1953.
“I looked at my wrist watch and saw that it said ten-thirty. The lateness of the hour, with still nothing of extraordinary significance having taken place, sent a wave of disappointment through me. And just at this moment of depression, two men approached, one of whom addressed me by name. Both were complete strangers, but there was no hesitancy in their manner as they came forward, and nothing in their appearance to indicate that they were other than average young businessmen… I noted that both men were well proportioned. One was slightly over six feet and looked to be in his early thirties. His complexion was ruddy, his eyes dark brown, with the kind of sparkle that suggests great enjoyment of life. His gaze was extraordinarily penetrating. His black hair waved and was cut according to our style. He wore a dark brown business suit but no hat. The shorter man looked younger and I judged his height to be about five feet, nine inches. He had a round boyish face, a fair complexion and eyes of grayish blue. His hair, also wavy and worn in our style, was sandy in color. He was dressed in a gray suit and was also hatless. He smiled as he addressed me by name. As I acknowledged the greeting, the speaker extended his hand and when it touched mine a great joy filled me. The signal was the same as had been given by the man I had met on the desert on that memorable November 20, 1952. (Described in the book Flying Saucers Have Landed).”
Significant in Adamski’s description is how the two extraterrestrials could pass off as businessmen. Aside from a penetrating stare, nothing struck him as unusual in their appearance. Adamski goes on to explain how he went with them in their car to travel to a remote desert location:
“Together we left the lobby, I walking between them. About a block north of the hotel, they turned into a parking lot where they had a car waiting. They had not spoken during this short time, yet inwardly I knew that these men were true friends. I felt no urge to ask where they proposed to take me, nor did it seem odd that they had volunteered no information. An attendant brought the car around, and the younger man slid into the driver’s seat, motioning me to get in beside him. Our other companion also sat with us on the front seat. The car was a four-door black Pontiac sedan. The man who had taken the wheel seemed to know exactly where he was going and drove skillfully. I am not familiar with all the new highways leading out of Los Angeles, so I had no idea in which direction we were headed. We rode in silence and I remained entirely content to wait for my companions to identify themselves and explain the reason for our meeting.”
“What’s significant here is that the two extraterrestrials possessed a car and knew how to navigate on the newly completed Los Angeles highway system. This is no mean feat and suggests that the extraterrestrials had taken the time to learn the road traffic rules and how to navigate through Los Angeles.”
Dr. Salla indicates in “Extraterrestrials Among Us”, that Adamski further reveals:
“Lights and dwellings thinned as we left the outskirts of the city. The taller man spoke for the first time… His voice was soft and pleasant and his English perfect. I had noticed that the younger man also spoke softly, although his voice was pitched higher. I found myself wondering how and where they had learned to speak our language so well.”
“…We are what you on Earth might call ‘Contact men.’ We live and work here, because, as you know, it is necessary on Earth to earn money with which to buy clothing, food, and the many things that people must have. We have lived on your planet now for several years. At first we did have a slight accent. But that has been overcome and, as you can see, we are unrecognized as other than Earth men. “At our work and in our leisure time we mingle with people here on Earth, never betraying the secret that we are inhabitants of other worlds. That would be dangerous, as you well know. We understand you people better than most of you know yourselves and can plainly see the reasons for many of the unhappy conditions that surround you.”
Dr. Salla indicates also that, “This passage [previous] is significant since it describes how the extraterrestrials have spent years living on Earth, learning the language, getting jobs and mixing with the human population. Furthermore, it appears as though extraterrestrials living among the human population may work in pairs, a kind of buddy system that would make sense in terms of ensuring safety and communications with the home world if an emergency ever occurred. If Adamski is accurate in his recollections and the extraterrestrials are telling the truth, then it would appear that there could be a significant number of extraterrestrials who are living incognito among the normal population in many if not most major cities on the planet. Upon examining other contactee cases and the testimonies of whistleblowers, it does appear as though this is indeed the case.”
Exopolitics groups furthermore provide additional representation that Adamski was not the only one of the contactees making representation that extraterrestrials were blending in with the human population. Howard Menger, for example. also claimed to have been contacted by extraterrestrials posing as ordinary human citizens. In one case, the extraterrestrial was posing as a real estate salesperson and asked Menger to accompany him in one of the extraterrestrial’s vehicle.
In addition to seeking to learn about human values and civilization, it appears that “Human ET” visitors were conducting a low key education effort to promote awareness of their presence to a limited number of individual ‘contactees’.
These “Human extraterrestrial visitors” have been represented has often having as very attractive physical characteristics, with “Human extraterrestrial females” being described as among the most beautiful women that male observers have witnessed.
The “Human extraterrestrials visitors” furthermore have been represented as going to great trouble in learning the indigenous language of the culture they are immersed in, learning how to drive and navigate on highways systems, and taking innocuous jobs over several years.
Extraterrestrials living among us appear to be operating in a manner similar to a “celestial peace corps” where they try to blend in. They presumably wish to learn about Earth culture and behaviour; and to, perhaps, assist in passing on information to selected individuals.
Representation on Earth Humans relative to “non-Earthbound” humans:
Advanced Human ETs as viewing Earth Humans as barbarians and savages which are a threat to themselves
Alex Collier alleges that ETs revealed to his that there are over 135 other billion human beings in the 8 galaxies closest to ours.
Alex Collier alleges that “The first time I walked on to one of their ships [Human ETs] , a bunch of their children started to run away from me. They knew that I was from Earth.”
“We have a very bad reputation,” Alex Collier indicates, “because we are the only human race in the galaxy that kills itself, that turns on itself. We are the only race [human] that allows itself to live in poverty. We are the only ones who allow members of our race to starve. We are the only ones that allow members of the race to be homeless. We are the only race that would sell itself into slavery. I don’t like the reflection they give me of us. It’s not that they are judging. They just don’t understand why we do it. If anyone’s got an answer for it, I’m open. Yes, we’ve been manipulated by belief systems, but why do we believe these belief systems?”
According to testimony by Alex Collier in associated with alleged ET contacts, Earth Humans “are the only race of human beings which oppresses and kills itself.”
If Human ETs do exist, as scholarly and other representation suggests, the saving of Humanity from its current apparent course of self-destruction, including on-going catastrophic Global Warming, may very well vitally rely on human governance systems placing its greed-driven bigotries aside, toward a constructive dialogue.
by John Stokes
quinta-feira, março | 24 | 2011
A diferença que faz virus produzirem doenças e archaeas não produzirem parece estar na diferente localização das duas espécies na Matriz Astronômica, ou LUCA. Já temos mostrado vários indícios em que os vírus parecem ter vindo do trecho entre F4 e F5, ou seja, seriam aqui os representantes de pulsares e cometas, as partes masculinas de LUCA. Dois motivos são apontados para a razão de existirem virus doentíos: a) procuram a parte fêmea do circuíto, a qual está no DNA ou mitocondria das células, para se reproduzirem, mas com isso danificam a célula; b) estão no princípio da ativação da entropia. A principal diferença da archaea que lhe valeu um terceiro lugar na evolução desde o ultimo comum ancestral, ao lado dos reinos “eucariotes” e “bactérias” está na membrana externa. Tôdas as membranas são formadas por duas camadas paralelas de lípideos e basta saber que membrana é o representante do circuíto total externo para entender o porque das duas camadas: representam os dois fluxos esféricos. Mas enquanto nos outros organismos estas duas camadas podem facilmente serem separadas (como em LUCA os dois fluxos se separam), na archaea existe uma forte ponte entre as duas camadas impedindo sua separação. Ora, o trecho de LUCA onde os dois fluxos são inseparáveis é entre E1 e F3 ( saída do black hole, passagem pelo astro-baby e finalização no planeta). Isto significa que archaea está ainda antes, na evolução do que os virus. Mas explicaria porque nenhuma das quatro espécies d6estes micro-organismos não causam doenças no corpo humano, apesar de muitas habitarem o corpo humano: elas vieram do trecho de LUCA onde a energia é apenas construtiva. E também esta ligação entre as duas camadas explicaria porque a archaea difere de bactéria e eucariotes no sentido que possuem enzimas para operar nas duas faces das moléculas, a left-handed e a right-handed: apesar de, como todos os seres vivos, representar apenas a parte esquerda de LUCA, nela são expressadas com igual intensidade os dois fluxos, que compreendem a totalidade da face de LUCA.
Veja figura a seguir:
Membrane structures. Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate group. Bottom: 9, lipid bilayer of bacteria and eukaryotes; 10, lipid monolayer of some archaea
E para prosseguir esta tese, deixemos já registrado o que a Wikipedia fala sôbre a membrana da archaea:
Archaeal membranes are made of molecules that differ strongly from those in other life forms, showing that archaea are related only distantly to bacteria and eukaryotes. In all organisms cell membranes are made of molecules known as phospholipids. These molecules possess both a polar part that dissolves in water (the phosphate “head”), and a “greasy” non-polar part that does not (the lipid tail). These dissimilar parts are connected by a glycerol moiety. In water, phospholipids cluster, with the heads facing the water and the tails facing away from it. The major structure in cell membranes is a double layer of these phospholipids, which is called a lipid bilayer.
These phospholipids are unusual in four ways:
Bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of glycerol-ester lipids, whereas archaea have membranes composed of glycerol-ether lipids. The difference is the type of bond that joins the lipids to the glycerol moiety; the two types are shown in yellow in the figure above. In ester lipids this is an ester bond, whereas in ether lipids this is an ether bond. Ether bonds are chemically more resistant than ester bonds. This stability might help archaea to survive extreme temperatures and very acidic or alkaline environments. Bacteria and eukaryotes do contain some ether lipids, but in contrast to archaea these lipids are not a major part of their membranes.
The stereochemistry of the glycerol moiety is the reverse of that found in other organisms. The glycerol moiety can occur in two forms that are mirror images of one another, called the right-handed and left-handed forms; in chemistry these are called enantiomers. Just as a right hand does not fit easily into a left-handed glove, a right-handed glycerol molecule generally cannot be used or made by enzymes adapted for the left-handed form. This suggests that archaea use entirely different enzymes for synthesizing phospholipids than do bacteria and eukaryotes. Such enzymes developed very early in life’s history, suggesting an early split from the other two domains.
Archaeal lipid tails are chemically different from other organisms. Archaeal lipids are based upon the isoprenoid sidechain and are long chains with multiple side-branches and sometimes even cyclopropane or cyclohexane rings. This is in contrast to the fatty acids found in other organisms’ membranes, which have straight chains with no branches or rings. Although isoprenoids play an important role in the biochemistry of many organisms, only the archaea use them to make phospholipids. These branched chains may help prevent archaean membranes from leaking at high temperatures.
In some archaea the lipid bilayer is replaced by a monolayer. In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two independent phospholipid molecules into a single molecule with two polar heads; this fusion may make their membranes more rigid and better able to resist harsh environments. For example, the lipids in Ferroplasma are of this type, which is thought to aid this organism’s survival in its highly acidic habitat.
segunda-feira, março | 7 | 2011
Existe muita literatura de místicos sugerindo que existem extraterrestres virtuais vivendo no nucleo da Terra, e apesar de eu não acreditar nisso, até que faria sentido se dissessem que estão vindo aqui colher um tipo de energia especial que apenas o nucleo da Terra possue nesta galáxia. Pois que êsse nucleo seja especial, diferente ao menos dos outros planetas do sistema solar, não me resta muita dúvida, pois de alguma forma êle contribuiu para as origens e manutenção da vida aqui.
Mas vamos falar de coisa mais real que pode nos fornecer algo util aqui e agora: trata-se da busca da vida terrestre mesmo, óbviamente microbiológica no interior da Terra.
A vida já foi encontrada em camadas muito profundas da crostra terrestre, a c6erca de 1.600 metros desde a superfície! Mas cientistas do projeto Deep Carbon Observatory receberam mais financiamento da Alfred P. Sloan Foundation para a busca em regiões ainda mais profundas. “Vinte anos atrás, a idéia de que poderia existir uma biosfera subterrânea era exótica e provocava risos. Mas agora sabemos que essa biosfera existe de fato, porque para qualquer lado que se perfura o solo encontra-se vida.” disse Robert Hazen, um cientista do Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, e que está trabalhando no projeto.
Os cientistas acreditam que os micróbios subterrâneos, alguns deles isolados da superfície da Terra desde antes do alvorecer da humanidade, exerce influência nos mecanismos fundamentais de funcionamento do interior do nosso planeta. Os micróbios processam o carvão de forma relativamente rápida, tornando-os importantes no ciclo do carbono. “Queremos ver se conseguimos ter microbiologistas em cada local de perfuração profunda para que possamos colectar amostras antes que eles possam estar contaminados“, disse Hazen. “Estamos a aprender coisas fascinantes sobre uma biosfera que vive em condições muito diferentes da nossa.”
Comentário da Matriz/DNA
Segundo os modêlos da Teoria da Matriz/DNA, o núcleo de planetas possue partículas que foram “treinadas e condicionadas” nas origens da galáxia quando o primeiro sistema se organizou com astros cujas formas foram modeladas pelo ciclo vital. Portanto tais particulas (que devem serem fotons) são uma espécie de memória ( precursora da memória biológica) e se juntas novamente na mesma orfdem que estavam nas origens elas recompõe a configuração daquêle sistema. Acontece que esta configuração é exatamente a fôrma primordial da configuração do nucleotideo – a unidade fundamental de informação do DNA. Portanto, se estiver for comprovado correto, no nucleo dos planetas está o código cósmico precursor do código genético biológico. Esta a idéia da Matriz; o Universo todo possui um código organizador da matéria em sistemas, uma Matriz, a qual tem como sua forma biológica e representante entre nós, o DNA.
Mas planetas ocupam a posição de F 3 no diagrama/software da Matriz/DNA e apesar de que em qualquer ponto do circuito sistêmico se encontram tôdas as informações do sistema, no ponto do planeta se expressa mais fortemente as funções iniciais, 1,2 e 3. Deve haver alguma expressão mais fraca de F4 e mesmo F5, mas para uma forma primordial de sistema biológico estas duas pouco influenciaria. Este trecho do circuito relativo à meia-face esquerda da Matriz pode produzir um protótipo de sistema biológico mas muito precário, dificilmente capaz de se reproduzir, como acontece com os virus. E deve apresentar apenas a metade ou menos dos 20 aminoacidos que são necessários para uma vida completa. Portanto, tendo em base a teoria da Matriz/DNA tem-se uma previsão do que deverá ser encontrado, mas o mais importante, os modêlos da teoria pode orientar a pesquisa e evitar que se deixe de perceber compostos simples ou moléculas orgânicas.
A seguir o texto em Inglês registrado para futuras pesquisas e aguardando tradução.
The Hunt For Earth’s Missing Carbon
An international team of scientists begins a ten year survey of the ‘most important element’
Feb 20, 2011
By Eric Betz, ISNS Contributor
Inside Science News Service
(ISNS) — Deep beneath the surface of the Earth, a vast and unseen community of strange, microscopic lifeforms quietly subsists on the heat rising from our planet’s interior.
In its total mass, this life might rival all that walks, crawls, stands, swims and soars above it, but scientists don’t know for sure. Life has already been found in the deepest layer of Earth’s crust, nearly one mile down, but scientists expect to find life thriving even deeper. Studying mysteries like this one is a task for the Deep Carbon Observatory, a new project that will search out not just life but everything carbon-related that lies beneath our feet.
“Twenty years ago, the idea that there was a deep underground biosphere would have been laughed at,” said Robert Hazen, a research scientist at the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, D.C., and leader of the Deep Carbon Observatory. “But we now know there is, because anywhere you drill you find life.” He spoke about the project on February 20 during the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Washington, D.C.
Now in the first year of its planned decade-long existence, the Deep Carbon Observatory aims to reshape our fundamental understanding of carbon’s role in the biology, chemistry, and physics of Earth’s interior. Unlike typical astronomical observatories, which consist of a single instrument at a fixed location, the Deep Carbon Observatory will be a distributed operation, requiring a wide variety of instruments installed at locations around the world.
“We really don’t know to a factor of 20-30 how much carbon there is in our planet,” Hazen said.
Carbon is among the most important chemical elements to humans. It forms the basis of life as we know it, is the central ingredient in many energy sources and plays a key part in our climate. In a planetary-scale machine called the carbon cycle, the element circulates among the oceans and atmosphere, into and out of the Earth’s crust, and through living creatures that take it up, chemically process it, and redeposit it back into the planet. But even this immense cycle is thought to contain only a small part of total amount of carbon in our planet, with the rest locked deep beneath the surface.
“When you step back and ask fundamental questions about carbon in the Earth,” said Russell Hemley, also of the Geophysical Laboratory and co-leader of the program, “you realize there is a great deal that we do not know about this important element.”
Scientists believe that the subterranean microbes, some of them isolated from Earth’s surface since before the dawn of humanity, crucially influence the engines that drive our planet’s interior. The microbes process carbon relatively quickly, making them an important step in the carbon cycle. But the team behind the Deep Carbon Observatory says the project could also answer questions about many other issues.
The observatory is being funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which has previously supported similarly large and ambitious science projects. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, for example, has investigated the mysterious, universe-filling dark matter and dark energy, which are thought to be responsible for invisible effects of gravity and the cause of the increasing rate of expansion of the universe, respectively. The Census of Marine Life recently completed a survey of the abundance, diversity, and distribution of ocean life. Together, these programs cost hundreds of millions of dollars.
Still in its infancy, the Deep Carbon Observatory has yet to make any big discoveries. Efforts so far have mostly focused on galvanizing interest and participation by governments, industry, and geoscientists across the globe.
Some of the instruments envisioned for the observatory don’t even exist yet. One device the scientific team hopes to develop is a small detector that can be placed on an active volcano to measure the amount of carbon it releases. Other instruments will extract data from existing resources, like the world’s deepest drillshafts and mines.
“We want to see if we can get microbiologists on site at every deep drilling site in the world so we can collect samples before they can be contaminated,” Hazen said. “We’re learning fascinating things about a biosphere that lives in very different conditions than we’re familiar with.”
The goal of the project is to answer basic science questions, but industry already has its eyes on the research. In the past year, two of the world’s largest natural gas reserves have been discovered off the coasts of Israel and Brazil. Hazen says his team has plans to study these methane reservoirs to see if the gas has its origins in biological processes underground, or high-pressure chemical reactions occurring at great depths. Last summer, scientists from the Shell Oil Company, which is a participant in the project, hosted a Deep Carbon Observatory workshop aimed at identify research directions.
“Science is not cataloging all the things we know, it’s exploring the things we don’t,” said Hazen. He suggested that discoveries by the Deep Carbon Observatory could lead to Nobel Prizes in chemistry and physics ten years from now. “We want to find the carbon equivalent of dark energy,” Hazen said
sábado, março | 5 | 2011
- Vida Extraterrestre
- “… isto é uma batata frita?”
- “ Não, bocó, isto é um extraterrestre!”
( A mente humana está sendo obrigada a se ampliar, crescer, vencer os limites e fronteiras do planeta e da vida biológica para se estabelecer no espaço sideral e tornar-se uma unica e final mente universal, quando o Universo finalmente adquirirá sua auto-consciência de sua própria existência e se transcenderá, nascerá para outro mundo, talvez onde nos aguarda de braços abertos um casal onde sua parte feminina esteja grávida, no dia do Big Birth. Isto é o que sugerem os modêlos da Teoria da Matriz/DNA, e isto foi o que me fêz despertar um amor apaixonado pela Humanidade inteira, pois cada ser humano, o mais simples que existe, é uma parcela de mim, e devo ajuda-la, trata-la com todo cuidado, pois de sua facilidade na vida e desenvolvimento perfeito dependerá a perfeição e saúde do meu corpo mental no futuro. Nêsse processo temos ultimamente sendo acossados pela idéia de que não somos os unicos vivos no mundo, a Terra está sendo bombardeada por meteóritos e êstes estão sendo captados por sondas humanas, e nêstes meteóritos estamos descobrindo que, colado nêles, existem moléculas bioquimicas e até sistemas bioquimicos organizados, como indica a foto acima. A NASA está investindo pesado nesta busca, mas o problema, quando me baseio na cosmovisão da Matrix/DNA, é que o modêlo cosmológico e entendimento do Cosmos sugeridos pela teoria acadêmica oficial mais aceita no meio cientifico está com alguns êrros, e isto está prejudicando esta pesquisa, tornando-a muito mais lenta, gastando-se mais inutilmente, e sendo desviada da realidade. A sugestão de meus modêlos é unica e desconhecida para êles: a Vida, tal como a vemos nêste planeta, nada mais é que a continuação evolutiva da evolução anterior, cosmológica, atômica, primordial, e qualquer sistema estelar com as suficientes e necessárias condições emite bits-informação na forma de fótons que carregam o código astronomico semi-biológico, e uma vez na superficie de qualquer planeta, nestas condições, pode gerar os sistemas biológicos (os seres vivos) em vários pontos do planeta. Alguns sistemas não apresentam perfeitas condições mas de qualquer maneira desenvolve algumas espécies, e isto resulta no que o cientista diz abaixo: formas de vida diferentes de tudo que vemos na Terra. Estou estudando com atenção o “paper” publicado pelos cientistas no Journal of Cosmogy e emocionando-me por ver vários ítens comprovando o que meus modêlos preveram a 25 anos atrás. Por exemplo, que todos os exemplares organicos extraterrestres apresentam apenas 8 tipos de aminoácidos, quando a Vida é constituída por 20 tipos. Ora meus modêlos sugeriam que se a vida principia prematuramente em velhos planetas, novos pulsares, ou em cometas produzidos nestes astros, ela deve se estabilizar apenas com a metade das informações do código genético, relativa à meia-face esquerda da Matriz/DNA. E pelo que diz os artigos, desconfiam que os meteóritos vieram de cometas. Ora, a presença da metade dos aminoacidos indica justamente isso! Outra informação é que mediram temperaturas do nucleo de cometas e descobriram que os nucleos tem regiões quentes ! Na base de 350 graus Kelvin! Quando expus os modêlos da Matriz/DNA um dos assuntos mais criticados foi essa sugestão que seus nucleos já foram quentes um dia, ou se o cometa ainda é novo deve ser ainda quente, pois todas as teorias na época afirmavam que o nucleo de cometas seria gêlo. Eu não quero acreditar na cosmovisão da Teoria da Matriz/DNA mas não tem como me desviar dela, ela agarra como carrapato, e cada vez que a Ciência descobre algo novo ela me dá um beliscão e sussurra: “Eu não disse?”
O trecho seguinte é meu comentário postado em alguns blogs que veicularam esta noticia:
Sinto muito mas posso estar trazendo uma má notícia: vocês com educação acadêmica podem terem sido enganados a respeito como funciona êste mundo. Da mesma forma que todos os estudantes antes de Copérnico foram enganados a verem o mundo ao contrário.
Resolver o mistério sôbre as origens da Vida hoje é mais um trabalho para detetives filósofos do que laboratorial, aplicando o mesmo método de Watson e Crick para decifrar o código genético. Pois agora trata-se de identificar e decifrar o código cósmico que evoluiu e gerou o código genético. Vocês não estão fazendo isso porque separaram a Evolução Cosmológica da Evolução Biológica, criando dois blocos da História Universal sem conexão alguma entre êles, interpondo um abismo entre os dois que foi preenchido pela doutrina do Acaso Absoluto.
Meu método nesta tentativa de detetive filósofo foi a anatomia comparada entre as duas evoluções, entre sistemas naturais vivos e não-vivos, e o resultado que está sob testes por enquanto, está na Teoria “A Matriz Universal dos Sistemas Naturais e Ciclos Vitais” em cujo website estou publicando as evidências encontradas a cada dia. E segundo indicam estes resultados, rápidamente tenho os seguintes comentários sôbre o tema:
1) A Vida pode emergir em muitos astros e em vários pontos diferentes de um mesmo astro. O problema do Dr. Hoover é sua crença na panspermia, a qual aponta para uma unica origem da Vida e seu posterior espalhamento pelo Cosmos. Acontece que os sistemas biológicos (aka seres vivos) são meras continuidades evolutivas dos sistemas naturais anteriores, e o mais evoluído antes da primeira célula era o sistema galáctico, portanto nêste está o principio do código que evoluiu para o DNA, conforme indica o diagrama/software em meu website. Tôda galaxia tem este código como organizador de sua estrutura e portanto tôda galaxia pode gerar a Vida. E isto implica em vida sob muitas origens em muitos pontos diferentes.
2) O fato de que todas as amostras creditadas como vida extraterrestre apresentarem apenas 8 dos 20 aminoacidos necessarios para a vida terrestre e a possibilidade de que estas amostras vieram de cometas confirma a minha teoria da Matriz/DNA. Cometas, ao contrário do que a teoria Acadêmica Nebular está sugerindo, são produzidos pela emissão no espaço de magma provenientes de gigantes vulcões em planetas velhos sendo transformados em pulsares. Como eles carregam apenas metade do código cósmico, apenas podem produzir protótipos de sistemas biológicos e com a metade dos aminoacidos relacionados à meia-face esquerda da Matriz/DNA.
3) A revelação no “paper” do Dr. Hoover de que nucleos de cometas apresentam regiões quentes (350 graus K) é consagração de mais uma das previsões dos modêlos registrados a 25 anos atrás da Teoria da Matriz/DNA, quando fui criticado por muitos devido a teoria acadêmica afirmar que este nucleo seria congelado.
4) Por meu lado eu estou muito satisfeito e animado que cientistas de coragem e muito trabalho como o Dr. Hoover esteja em atividade. Ele está lutando contra as barreiras das crenças predominantes e pode estar abrindo mais as portas para a evolução do conhecimento humano.
Atenciosamente, Louis Morelli, New York, USA
Vejamos artigos relacionados (alguém aí tem tempo para traduzir os textos em inglês para português e vice-versa? Por favor!)
NASA Offers Proof Of Alien Life
A NASA scientist has come to the surprising conclusion that alien life exists, and even has the fossils of it to back the claims up.
The alleged fossil shown in the picture above was found in a meteorite by Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist with NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, cracked open the meteorite in a totally sterile lab, and using an electron microscope took the image above, which certainly does look like bacteria. In fact, Dr Hoover noted that it looked surprisingly similar to the giant bacterium Titanospirillum velox, an organism found here on planet Earth.
I interpret it as indicating that life is more broadly distributed than restricted strictly to the planet earth. This field of study has just barely been touched — because quite frankly, a great many scientist would say that this is impossible.
Dr Hoover speaking with FoxNews.com
Some of the supposed fossils found in the research look very similar to ones we have here on Earth, while he says that others are totally alien and look nothing like anything we have ever seen before. Many people often assume alien life will be remotely similar to Earths life, or totally different, but rarely not both.
The exciting thing is that they are in many cases recognizable and can be associated very closely with the generic species here on earth. There are some that are just very strange and don’t look like anything that I’ve been able to identify, and I’ve shown them to many other experts that have also come up stumped.
Dr Hoover speaking with FoxNews.com
Dr Hoover spoke with Fox News about the discovery, although the report itself is not actually new, in fact it was published in a paper by NASA back in 2007 . It is surprising that this was not picked up on earlier, now that a major news source has picked up on it, the story is quickly gaining momentum in the media. The final article is to be published in the March addition of the Journal Of Cosmology. When officially published, this paper will be heavily scrutinized, people will try and deny it or prove it wrong, and it will be exciting to see what the consensus of opinion is.
This is not the first time people have claimed to have found fossilized life in a meteorite from Mars, although this was never confirmed and the supposed fossil did not look quite as convincing as this one.
If provable, this could change the way we explore space forever, we would no longer be looking for whether microbial life can exist elsewhere, but instead we will be looking to find out where it is from. It would be even more exciting for the prospects of the universal alien life if it were ever determined that this possible alien microbe was from somewhere else in our own solar system, as two occurrences of life in one solar system would mean that we can be near certain of life elsewhere and it might not be as rare as once thought.
Not only this, but if we want to send manned missions to other planets, moons and asteroids in the future, we will have to be extremely careful in doing so, careful to protect the crew from anything that could be harmful, but just as important is the protection of any potential ecosystems of microbes or more advanced life.
It shocks me that it has taken over 3 years for this story to get wide attention even though the work hasn’t been officially published yet, I’d have thought the media would have jumped on this from the go; now that the cat is out of the unsealed bag, what an exciting development, perhaps this is the first alien ever seen by mankind, it may not be a green man in a flying saucer on the lawn of the white house, but to us here at Spaceosaur, it is just as amazing if real.
Microfossils of Cyanobacteria in the Orgueil Carbonaceous Meteorite
Richard B. Hoover, BSc
During the past decade, Scanning Electron Microscopy investigations at NASA/MSFC and NSSTC have resulted in the detection of embedded coccoidal and filamentous forms in freshly fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. Many of these forms have sizes and morphologies consistent with well-known genera and species of Cyanobacteria. Similar forms have never been detected in any of the stony chondrites, achondrites, diogenites, nickel-iron meteorites or lunar samples studied. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and 2D maps indicate that these filaments in Orgueil are permineralized with magnesium sulfate, encased within carbon-rich sheaths and depleted in Nitrogen. Many of the large and complex forms are polarized filaments that exhibit highly differentiated and specialized cells for nitrogen fixation (heterocysts) and reproduction (hormogonia, akinetes and baeocytes). High-resolution images will be presented to show that the Orgueil filaments are biological in origin and can be interpreted as morphotypes of all known Orders of Cyanobacteriaceae. C/S and C/N ratios will be presented to demonstrate that the forms embedded in the meteorite rock matrix cannot logically be dismissed as post-arrival biological contaminants. It is concluded that the well-preserved, fossilized filaments and dense mats found in Orgueil represent the remains of a complex aquatic and benthic cyanobacterial mat community that grew on the parent body of the meteorite prior to entry into Earth’s atmosphere.
Richard B. Hoover conducts research in Microbial Extremophiles and Astromaterials at the NSSTC Astrobiology Laboratory. He has authored/edited 35 books and over 250 scientific papers. He is well known for his work on X-Ray Optics and is an internationally recognized diatomist. He Inventoried the Henri van Heurck Diatom Collection at the invitation of the Royal Society of Belgium and authored the first article on Diatoms to appear in National Geographic (June, 1979). He collaborated with the late Sir Fred Hoyle exploring the possibility that diatoms and other microorganisms might inhabit comets or the oceans of Europa. His diatom photos have appeared in many international publications published and for almost a decade his arranged diatom slides were exhibited at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Hoover has led scientific expeditions to collect microbial extremophiles in California, Santorini, Hawaii Alaska, Patagonia, North Siberia and Antarctica that resulted in the discovery and valid publication of a new genus Anaerovirgula and several new species of bacteria and archaea. Astronauts James Lovell and Owen Garriott participated in the Antarctica 2000 Expedition that resulted in the discovery of the new species Trichococcus patagoniensis that grows at -5 degrees C. The new species Tindallia californiensis, Desulfonatronum thiodismutans and Spirochaeta americana (a hydrogen producer) were discovered in samples from Mono Lake and Carnobacterium pleistocenium is a living Pleistocene bacterium recovered from 32,000 year old ice sample from the Fox Tunnel of Alaska. Thermococcus thioreducens is a new species of archaeon from the Rainbow Hydrothermal Vent that will be published in July 2007. He has extensively studied living cyanobacteria, cryopreserved cyanobacteria in the Deep Vostok Ice Cores and cyanobacterial microfossils in Proterozoic Phosphorites from Mongolia and Archaean rocks from Siberia. Hoover is a Fellow of SPIE and was 2001 SPIE President. He served on several Boards of Directors: SPIE; American Association of Engineering Societies; and Council of Scientific Society Presidents as well as Editorial Boards of several Journals: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, Optical Engineering, Advances in Optical Technology; and Astrobiology and his book Perspectives in Astrobiology was published in 2005. Richard Hoover was elected a Fellow of the Explorers Club (2001) in recognition of his exploration in search for novel life forms in some of the most hostile environments on Earth, and his detection of evidence of microfossils in meteorites, led to his selection as an Honorary Life Member (2004) of the Planetary Studies Foundation.
Richard Hoover has led scientific expeditions to collect extremophiles in the permafrost and glaciers of North Siberia, Alaska, Patagonia and Antarctica; haloalkaline lakes, geysers and fumaroles of California, Santorini, and Hawaii. He was Science Team Leader to the Patriot Hills, Thiel Mountains, and South Pole of Antarctica. These expeditions resulted in the discovery and valid publication of several genera and species of bacteria and archaea previously unknown to science. Astronauts James L. Lovell and Owen K. Garriott participated in Antarctica 2000 Expedition, which resulted in the discovery of Trichococcus patagoniensis that can grow at -5 degrees C. Novel species of bacteria: Tindallia californiensis, Desulfonatronum thiodismutans and Spirochaeta americana (which produces hydrogen as its main waste product) were isolated from samples he collected in Mono Lake, CA. Carnobacterium pleistocenium is a living Pleistocene microorganism that he recovered from 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Permafrost Tunnel in Alaska. The new genus Anaerovirgula multivorans is unusual in that it can grow on both D- and L- sugars. Thermococcus thioreducens is a novel archaeon collected by Owen Garriott from the Rainbow Hydrothermal. He is Fellow of SPIE and was 2001 SPIE President of SPIE. He has served on the Boards of Directors of SPIE; the American Association of Engineering Societies; and the Council of Scientific Society Presidents and the Editorial Board of: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, Optical Engineering and Astrobiology. His book Perspectives in Astrobiology was published in 2005. In recognition of his exploration in some of the most hostile environments on Earth in search of novel life forms, Hoover was elected a Fellow of the Explorers Club in 2001. His research on new species of microbial extremophiles and the detection of evidence of microfossils in meteorites, led to his selection in 2004 as an Honorary Life Member of the Planetary Studies Foundation.
Journal of Cosmology:
4.4 Amino Acids and Chiral Biomarkers Modern Bacteria and Carbonaceous Meteorites. A suite of 20 life-critical amino acids are present in the proteins of all life forms known on Earth. The protein amino acids exhibit homochirality in that they are exclusively the L-enantiomer. Table IV shows the protein L-amino acids in the exopolysaccharide (EPS) slime sheath of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa K-3A; living cells of the bacteria E. Coli and Salmonella sp. and ancient terrestrial biology (e.g., a Fly in amber and teeth of a Cretaceous Duck-Billed Hadrosaur) for comparison with extraterrestrial amino acids detected in the Murchison, Murray, Orgueil and Ivuna meteorites reported by Ehrenfreund et al., Engel et al. and Cronin and Pizarello. The amino acids of Table IV shown in italics or marked with “-“ or “n.d.” were either not detected or present at only trace levels in the fossils in terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites. Even though there is no doubt that the amber encased fly and the Hadrosaur teeth are biological in origin, it is seen that these fossils are also missing several of the same amino acids that absent in the carbonaceous meteorites. Only 8 of the 20 life-critical protein amino acids are detectable in water/acid extracts of carbonaceous meteorites. The fact that several of the amino acids missing in meteorites and ancient terrestrial fossils are abundant in living bacteria provides strong evidence that the meteorites are not contaminated by modern biological materials. If modern bio-contaminants were present, all 20 protein amino acids should be detected.
The data of Table IV indicates that the most abundant (by weight%) amino acids in the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. are GLU, ASP, ALA, GLY and LEU (all above 8%) followed closely by THR, SER, VAL, ILEU and PRO (all above ~5%). However, GLY is by far the most abundant protein amino acid in the Murchison (CM2), Murray (CM2), Orgueil (CI1) and Ivuna (CI1) carbonaceous meteorites and it is followed by ALA, GLU and ASP. However, in these carbonaceous meteorites, the protein amino acids LEU, THR, SER, VAL, ILEU and PRO, which are abundant in all life on Earth, are either totally absent or detected only at trace levels. As has been pointed out by Engel and Macko (2005) these missing protein amino acids provide clear and convincing evidence that the interior portions of the CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites are not contaminated by modern cyanobacteria, pollen, fingerprints or other microbial contaminants. Isovaline (IVA), α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and γ -Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) are the most abundant non-protein amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites. While they are not protein amino acids it is wrong to conclude that they are not biological in nature. The amino acids IVA and AIB are formed on Earth by the diagenetic alteration of ancient biological materials and γ -Aminobutyric Acid is synthesized by organisms on Earth. However, most protein amino acids are absent in meteorites and terrestrial fossils and only 8 of the 20 life-critical protein amino acids have been found in carbonaceous meteorites using the most sensitive modern methodologies available.
4.5 Comets as Parent Bodies of CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites. The CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are jet-black stones that contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The albedo of the Orgueil meteorite is extremely low (~0.05) and comparable to that of the very dark C-type asteroids and the nuclei of comets. This is blacker than asphalt which has an albedo of ~ 0.07. The European Space Agency Halley Multicolor Camera aboard the Giotto Spacecraft obtained images at the closest approach (00:03:01.84 UT on March 14, 1986) at a distance of 596 km from the centre of the nucleus revealing detailed topographic features on the black (albedo 0.04) surface and jets Lamarre et al. (1986) reported that IKS-Vega data indicated the temperature of nucleus of comet Halley was 420 K +/- 60K at 0.8 A.U which was consistent with “a thin layer of porous black material covering the comet nucleus.” The Deep Space 1 spacecraft found the 8 km long nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly to be very hot (~345 K) with prominent jets aligned with the orientation of the rotation axis of the nucleus and albedo of 0.01 to 0.03 (Soderbloom et al. 2002). Ices of water, carbon dioxide, methane and other volatiles in the cold nucleus in proximity to the hot crust would melt and then boil to produce high pressure beneath the crust if gas is released faster than it can escape through the porous crust. In regions where the pressure exceeds the strength of the crust, localized failure of portions of the crust could result in explosive release of the gas giving rise to the observed flaring of comets and the dramatic jets.
Once a comet enters the inner solar system, it becomes hot from solar radiation on the black nucleus and loses mass rapidly. The European Space Agency Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) showed that water was the primary volatile (75-80 %) of the 40-50 km diameter nucleus of Comet Hale-Bopp. Minor volatile fractions detected (CH4, NH3 and H2CO) could have come from clathrates (H2O ice with simple gasses like CO2 and NH3 in a stable lattice structure) or result from atmospheric chemistry. ISO found that Hale-Bopp released water vapor, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at a rate of 2 x 109 kg/sec and detected olivine in the dust. Olivine is commonly encountered in meteorites. As comets lose ices they develop an inert outer crust from the less volatile material. The nuclei of comets are extremely complex – they exhibit rugged terrain, smooth rolling plains, deep fractures and are composed of very dark material. This black crust becomes very hot while the comet is in the inner regions of the Solar System.
Figure 7.a. is a NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft composite false color image showing geyser-like jets erupting from the long prolate nucleus (8 km) of comet 19P/Borrelly on Sept. 22, 2001. (The colors indicate three orders of magnitude in light level (red is 1/10, blue 1/100 and purple 1/1000 the intensity of the comet nucleus). The red bumps on the nucleus are real and show where the main jet resolves into three distinct narrow jets coming from distinct sources on the comet nucleus. These narrow jets are entirely consistent with the hypothesis that internal pressures generated by steam produced by melting of internal ices which then boil into gases as they are vaporized as heat conducts through hot crust. The NASA Deep Impact probe obtained the valuable data about the nature of comets as it approached and when the impactor collided with the nucleus of comet 9/P Temple 1 on July 4, 2005. Fig. 7.b is a Deep Impact image of the nucleus of comet Temple 1. The regions shown in blue are where exposed deposits of water ice that were detected on the surface of the comet nucleus Sunshine et al. (2005). These water ice regions ere observed to be ~30% brighter than the surrounding areas and probably were exposed when portions of the black crust was blown off into space by the explosive eruptions such as were recorded in a video by the spacecraft. The Deep Impact measurements of the temperature profile of comet P/Temple 1 nucleus at 1.5 AU is shown in Figure 7.c. Even as far away from the Sun as Mars the jet-black comet nucleus reaches temperatures as high as 330 K (57 oC). Furthermore, the lowest temperatures measured on the crust were ~ 280 K (7 oC) which is slightly above the temperature at which water ice changes from solid to liquid phase. Prior to the impact, the ambient outgassing of Temple 1 was ~6×1027 molecules/s of water. However, the free sublimation of ice calculated above (~200 K) was only ~4.5 x 1021 molecules/m2/s indicating that the ambient outgassing had significant subsurface sources. The Deep Impact spacecraft also observed numerous events of flaring of the nucleus and eruption of geyser-like jets as the comet was approached and before the collision of the impactor. On November 4, 2010, the NASA EPOXI extended mission of the Deep Impact Spacecraft passed within 435 miles of the 2.2 km long nucleus of comet Hartley 2 and revealed bright jets of carbon dioxide gas and dust.
These observations of comets are consistent with the hypothesis that the comet crust impedes the flow of gasses such that pressures develop as ices melt and vaporize in pockets and cavities beneath the crust. This provides the pressures needed to allow water to transition from the solid to the liquid state and then into the gaseous state. This would create micro-niches with pools of liquid water trapped within pockets in rock and ice, very much analogous to the cryoconite and ice bubble ecosystems contained psychrophilic microbial extremophiles such as those described from the glaciers and frozen Pleistocene thermokarst ponds of Alaska and Siberia and the glaciers and perennially ice covered lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee in East Antarctica (Hoover, 2008; Hoover and Pikuta, 2010; Pikuta et al. 2005). If gas is produced faster than it can escape through the porous crust, it could high pressures resulting in localized failure of weaker portions of the crust and the violent eruption into space of carbon dioxide, water vapor and chunks of crust and particles of ice and dust propelled into space and directed into the dust tail of the comet. These dust particulates could give rise to meteor showers as the comet passes through the tail. From time to time, larger chunks of the ejected may survive passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and this could be the link between comets and the CI1 (and possibly the CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. The fact that the CI1 meteorites contain minerals that were extensively altered by liquid water on the parent body and that the stones have been found to contain a large amount of indigenous extraterrestrial water clearly establishes that their parent bodies were most likely comets or water-bearing asteroids. It is now well known that the black nuclei of comets get very hot (significantly above >273 K where water ice melts) as they approach the Sun.
Gounelle et al. (2006) used the eyewitness accounts to compute the atmospheric trajectory and orbit of the Orgueil meteoroid and concluded that the orbital plane was close to the ecliptic and that entry into the atmosphere took place at a height of approximately 70 km and an angle of ~20°. Their calculations indicated the meteoroid terminal height was ~20 km and the pre-atmospheric velocity was > 17.8 km/sec. They found the aphelion to be 5.2 AU (the semi-major axis of orbit of Jupiter) and perihelion ~0.87 AU, which is just inside the Earth’s orbit as would be expected for an Earth-crossing meteorite. This calculated orbit suggests the Apollo Asteroids and the Jupiter-family of comets are likely candidates for the Orgueil parent body include (although Halley-type comets are not excluded).
The cosmochemistry data for a cometary parent body is entirely consistent with the composition and characteristics of the CI1 meteorites. This suggestion that the parent body of the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites were possibly comets is significant with regard to possible existence of indigenous microfossils in the Alais, Ivuna and Orgueil meteorites. From the extensive evidence of aqueous alteration on the Orgueil parent body and the presence of indigenous water in the Orgueil meteorite it is clear that the parent body was either a water-bearing asteroid or a comet. However the Giotto and Vega observations of Halley and the Deep Impact Observations of the nucleus of 9P/Temple-1 have clearly established that these bodies get very hot as they enter the inner regions of the Solar System. It is now clear that any water bearing asteroid with an albedo of the Orgueil meteorite would reach a temperature above 100 C at 1AU. At these temperatures, water ice and other volatiles would be converted to liquid water, steam, and produce an expanding cloud of gas and expelled particulates. Any planetessimal orbiting the Sun and possessing a gaseous envelope and dust tail is traditionally refered to as “comet” rather than an asteroid, and therefore it seems logical that comets represent the most probable parent bodies for these water rich, black meteorites that travel in trajectories that cross the orbit of planet Earth.
4.6 Role of Comets and Carbonaceous Meteorites in the Origin and Evolution of the Earth’s Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere The relationship of comets with carbonaceous meteorites and their role in the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere of Earth has become better understood during the past few decades. The cratered surface of the moon provides clear evidence of the intense Hadean bombardment of the inner planets and moons by comets, asteroids and meteorites during the early history of the Solar System. Watson and Harrison (2005) interpreted the crystallization temperatures of 4.4 Ga Zircons from Western Australia as providing evidence that liquid water oceans were present on the early Earth within 200 million years of the formation of the Solar System. It has recently become more widely recognized that comets played a crucial role in the formation of the atmosphere and oceans of early Earth during the Hadean bombardment (Delsemme, 1997; Steel, 1998; Owen, 1997).
In 1978, Sill and Wilkening proposed that comets may have delivered life-critical biogenic elements carbon and nitrogen trapped within clathrate hydrates in their icy nuclei. In the same year, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe (1978, 1981, 1982, 1985) have proposed that comets delivered not only water, biogenic elements and complex organic chemicals to the surface of planet Earth, but that they also delivered intact and viable microorganisms. The detection of microfossils of cyanobacteria and other filamentous trichomic prokaryotes in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites (which are likely cometary crustal remnants) may be interpreted as direct observational data in support of the Hoyle/Wickramasinghe Hypothesis (Wickramasinghe 2011) of the role of comets in the exogenous origin of terrestrial life.
Eberhardt et al. (1987) measured the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in the water of comet P/Halley. Delsemme (1998) found that that the D/H ratio of the water molecules of comets Halley, Hale–Bopp and Hyakutake were consistent with a cometary origin of the oceans. Dauphas et al., (2000) interpreted the deuterium/hydrogen ratios indicate that the delivery of water and ice to the early Earth during the late Hadean heavy bombardment by comets, asteroids and meteorites helped to cool the Earth’s crust and form the early oceans. Table V shows data extracted from the Robert et al. (2000) compilation of Deuterium/Hydrogen ratios of selected components of the Cosmos.
When these bodies are grouped in accordance with their D/H ratio it is easily seen that the telluric inner planets and the LL3 (stony) and SNC (Mars) meteorites have high (~500-16,000) ratios and the gas giants, protosolar nebula, ISM and Galaxies are very low (~15-65). The D/H ratios of the comets (~290-330) and carbonaceous meteorites (~180-370) are much closer to that of Earth (~149) and support the hypothesis that they may have made significant contributions to the formation of the oceans of our planet. It is interesting that the D/H ratios of comets are very similar to the ratios measured in the kerogen, amino acids and carboxylic acids of the Orgueil (CI) and other (CM, CV, and CR) carbonaceous meteorites. This supports the view that although stony meteorites are most probably derived from rocky asteroids, the carbonaceous meteorites most probably are derived from water-bearing asteroids or the nuclei of comets. The 30 m diameter fast-spinning carbonaceous asteroid 1998 KY26 that was discovered on June 2, 1998 has been found to contain 10-20% water. However, the small carbonaceous, water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 also has color and radar reflectivity similar to carbonaceous meteorites and it may be a spent comet. Near IR observations indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. The Cassini/Huygens spacecraft has recently obtained data indicating that a vast liquid water ocean may also exist beneath the thick frozen crust of Titan. Cassini/Huygens has also detected evidence for cryovolcanic water-ice geysers on Titan and Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
5. EVIDENCE OF MICROFOSSILS IN CI1 METEORITES AND LIFE IN ICE: IMPLICATIONS TO POSSIBLE LIFE ON COMETS, EUROPA, AND ENCELADUS
The detection of evidence of viable microbial life in ancient ice (Abyzov et al., 1998, 2003; Hoover and Pikuta, 2010) and the presence of microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria and other trichomic prokaryotes in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites has direct implications to possible life on comets and icy moons with liquid water oceans of Jupiter (e.g. Europa, Ganymede or Callisto) and Enceladus (Fig. 8.a) Saturn’s spectacular moon that is exhibiting cryovolcanism and spewing water, ice and organics into space from the region of the blue and white “tiger stripes.” Europa exhibits red, orange, yellow and ochre colors and fractured regions indicating the icy crust is floating on a liquid water ocean. The possibility of life on Europa has been discussed by Hoover et al. (1986): Chyba et al. (2001) Dalton et al. (2003), and in edited books by Russell (2011), and Wickramasinghe (2011) and in Volumes 5, 11, and 13 of the Journal of Cosmology. Hoover et al. (1986) argued while deep blue and white colors in the Galileo images of the Jovian moon Europa were typical of glacial ice, ice bubbles and snow on Earth as seen in this image of ice bubbles from the Schirmacher Oasis of East Antarctica (Fig, 8.b). The red, yellow, brown, golden brown, green and blue colors detected by the Galileo spacecraft in the Conamara Chaos region (Fig. 8.c.) and the deep red lines of the icy crust of Europa (Fig. 8.d.) are consistent with microbial pigments rather than evaporite minerals. The 1986 paper suggested that the colors seen in Europa images resulted from microbial life in the upper layers of the ice. A number of more recent studies and books have been published concerning the significance of ice microbiota to the possibility of life elsewhere in the Solar System (e.g. Russell 2011; Wickramasinghe 2011; Volumes 5, 7, 13 of the Journal of Cosmology).
Diatoms are golden brown and cyanobacteria exhibit a wide range of colors from blue-green to red, orange, brown and black. Bacteria recovered from ice are often pigmented. For example, the extremophiles isolated from the ancient Greenland ice cores produce pigmented colonies. Herminiimonas glaciei colonies are red (Fig. 8.e) and the colonies of “Chryseobacterium greenlandensis” exhibit yellow pigments (Fig. 6.b.). Figure 5.c. shows the red pigmented colonies of the new genus of psychrophile, Rhodoglobus vestali isolated from a lake near the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica (Sheridan et al. 2003). Colonies of Hymenobacter sp. (Fig. 6.d.) isolated from the Schirmacher Oasis Ice Cave are red-ochre in color (Hoover and Pikuta, 2009, 2010). The possibility of life on Enceladus and the detection of biomarkers in the plumes of water, ice and organic chemicals ejected from the “Tiger Stripes” of Enceladus has been discussed by McKay et al., (2008) Hoover and Pikuta ( 2010) and in a number of articles published in volumes 5, 7, and 13 of the Journal of Cosmology.
It is concluded that the complex filaments found embedded in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites represent the remains of indigenous microfossils of cyanobacteria and other prokaryotes associated with modern and fossil prokaryotic mats. Many of the Ivuna and Orgueil filaments are isodiametric and others tapered, polarized and exhibit clearly differentiated apical and basal cells. These filaments were found in freshly fractured stones and are observed to be attached to the meteorite rock matrix in the manner of terrestrial assemblages of aquatic benthic, epipelic, and epilithic cyanobacterial communities comprised of species that grow on or in mud or clay sediments. Filamentous cyanobacteria similar in size and detailed morphology with basal heterocysts are well known in benthic cyanobacterial mats, where they attach the filament to the sediment at the interface between the liquid water and the substratum. The size, size range and complex morphological features and characteristics exhibited by these filaments render them recognizable as representatives of the filamentous Cyanobacteriaceae and associated trichomic prokaryotes commonly encountered in cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, the well-preserved mineralized trichomic filaments with carbonaceous sheaths found embedded in freshly fractured interior surfaces of the Alais, Ivuna, and Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are interpreted as the fossilized remains of prokaryotic microorganisms that grew in liquid regimes on the parent body of the meteorites before they entered the Earth’s atmosphere.
The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data reveals that the filaments detected in the meteorites typically exhibit external sheaths enriched in carbon infilled with minerals enriched in magnesium and sulfur. These results are interpreted as indicating that the organisms died on the parent body while aqueous fluids were present and the internal cells were replaced by epsomite and other water soluble evaporite minerals dissolved in the liquids circulating through the parent body. The nitrogen level in the meteorite filaments was almost always below the detection limit of the EDS detector (0.5% atomic). However, nitrogen is essential for all amino acids, proteins, and purine and pyrimidine nitrogen bases of the nucleotides of all life on Earth.
Extensive EDS studies of living and dead cyanobacteria and other biological materials have shown that nitrogen is detectable at levels between 2% and 18% (atomic) in cyanobacterial filaments from Vostok Ice (82 Kya) and found in stomach milk the mammoth Lyuba (40 Kya); mammoth hair/ tissue (40-32 Kya); pre-dynastic Egyptian and Peruvian mummies (5-2 Kya) and herbarium filamentous diatom sheaths (1815). However, Nitrogen is not detected in ancient biological materials such as fossil insects in Miocene Amber (8 Mya); Cambrian Trilobites from the Wheeler Shale (505 Mya) or cyanobacterial filaments from Karelia (2.7 Gya). Consequently the absence of nitrogen in the cyanobacterial filaments detected in the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites indicates that the filaments represent the remains of extraterrestrial life forms that grew on the parent bodies of the meteorites when liquid water was present, long before the meteorites entered the Earth’s atmosphere. This finding has direct implications to the distribution of life in the Cosmos and the possibility of microbial life in liquid water regimes of cometary nuclei as they travel within the orbit of Mars and in icy moons with liquid water oceans such as Europa and Enceladus.
quinta-feira, fevereiro | 10 | 2011
God would have used a hair dryer to Create Life?!
Sabemos da famosa experiência de Urey que misturou os ingredientes da Terra primitiva bombardeando-os com descargas elétricas e surgindo como produtos alguns aminoácidos, os famosos “building blocks” (tijolinhos) de todos os corpos dos seres vivos, como nós, humanos. Mas faltou algo ali pois os aminoácidos de Urey não dão o passo seguinte, ou seja, a formação de proteínas e RNA. Desde então milhares de tentativas tem sido feitas. Agora um cientista (calculando que os vapores quentes incidindo sôbre os mesmos ingredientes ajuntados por rochas aglutinadoras seria a solução para o grande mistério), tem conseguido tambem aminoacidos expondo os ingredientes sob um aparelho (technically known as an “internally heated, gas media pressure vessel”), que parece um secador de cabelo. Merece elogios, tôda tentativa é válida na busca por uma resposta que explique nossa existência.
Mas enquanto êle não consegue também fazer em labotatório que seus aminoácidos evoluam para proteínas e re-inventem o código genético, eu por meu lado continuo testando e buscando mais evidências para a Teoria da Matriz/DNA, a qual continua sugerindo que uma fórmula teria vindo desde átomos passando por galáxias e a qual estaria presente naquela sôpa primordial, sugerindo que ela é o elemento que está faltando nestas experiências. O leitor pode ficar de camarote assistindo nossa corrida nesta maratona para ver quem chega e acerta primeiro êste que é o maior mistério de todos os tempos. pois trata-se da explicação para a existência do mundo e de nós mesmos..Vejamos o artigo (em inglês, por enquanto, mas vou traduzi-l0 aqui em breve).
A mineralogist believes he’s discovered how life’s early building blocks connected four billion years ago
(Um mineralogista acredita que descobriu como os primeiros tijolinhos da Vida (os aminoácidos) se conectaram a bilhões de anos atrás)
Smithsonian magazine, October 2010
The Origins of Life
By Helen Fields
A hilly green campus in Washington, D.C. houses two departments of the Carnegie Institution for Science: the Geophysical Laboratory and the quaintly named Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. When the institution was founded, in 1902, measuring the earth’s magnetic field was a pressing scientific need for makers of nautical maps. Now, the people who work here—people like Bob Hazen—have more fundamental concerns. Hazen and his colleagues are using the institution’s “pressure bombs”—breadbox-size metal cylinders that squeeze and heat minerals to the insanely high temperatures and pressures found inside the earth—to decipher nothing less than the origins of life.
Hazen, a mineralogist, is investigating how the first organic chemicals—the kind found in living things—formed and then found each other nearly four billion years ago. He began this research in 1996, about two decades after scientists discovered hydrothermal vents—cracks in the deep ocean floor where water is heated to hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit by molten rock. The vents fuel strange underwater ecosystems inhabited by giant worms, blind shrimp and sulfur-eating bacteria. Hazen and his colleagues believed the complex, high-pressure vent environment—with rich mineral deposits and fissures spewing hot water into cold—might be where life began.
Hazen realized he could use the pressure bomb to test this theory. The device (technically known as an “internally heated, gas media pressure vessel”) is like a super-high-powered kitchen pressure cooker, producing temperatures exceeding 1,800 degrees and pressures up to 10,000 times that of the atmosphere at sea level.
Em outras palavras, enquanto Miller usou cargas elétricas, Hazen está usando os mesmos ingredientes, porem com o internally heated, gas media pressure vessel.
In his first experiment with the device, Hazen encased a few milligrams of water, an organic chemical called pyruvate and a powder that produces carbon dioxide all in a tiny capsule made of gold (which does not react with the chemicals inside) that he had welded himself. He put three capsules into the pressure bomb at 480 degrees and 2,000 atmospheres. And then he went to lunch. When he took the capsules out two hours later, the contents had turned into tens of thousands of different compounds. In later experiments, he combined nitrogen, ammonia and other molecules plausibly present on the early earth. In these experiments, Hazen and his colleagues created all sorts of organic molecules, including amino acids and sugars—the stuff of life.
Hazen’s experiments marked a turning point. Before them, origins-of-life research had been guided by a scenario scripted in 1871 by Charles Darwin himself: “But if (and oh! what a big if!) we could conceive in some warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light, heat, electricity, etc., present, that a proteine compound was chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes….”
In 1952, Stanley Miller, a graduate student in chemistry at the University of Chicago, attempted to create Darwin’s dream. Miller set up a container holding water (representing the early ocean) connected by glass tubes to one containing ammonia, methane and hydrogen—a mixture scientists of the day thought approximated the early atmosphere. A flame heated the water, sending vapor upward. In the atmosphere flask, electric sparks simulated lightning. The experiment was such a long shot that Miller’s adviser, Harold Urey, thought it a waste of time. But over the next few days, the water turned deep red. Miller had created a broth of amino acids.
Forty-four years later, Bob Hazen’s pressure bomb experiments would show that not just lightning storms but also hydrothermal vents potentially could have sparked life. His work soon led him to a more surprising conclusion: the basic molecules of life, it turns out, are able to form in all sorts of places: near hydrothermal vents, volcanoes, even on meteorites. Cracking open space rocks, astrobiologists have discovered amino acids, compounds similar to sugars and fatty acids, and nucleobases found in RNA and DNA. So it’s even possible that some of the first building blocks of life on earth came from outer space.
Hazen’s findings came at an auspicious time. “A few years before, we would have been laughed out of the origins-of-life community,” he says. But NASA, then starting up its astrobiology program, was looking for evidence that life could have evolved in odd environments—such as on other planets or their moons. “NASA [wanted] justification for going to Europa, to Titan, to Ganymede, to Callisto, to Mars,” says Hazen. If life does exist there, it’s likely to be under the surface, in warm, high-pressure environments.
Back on earth, Hazen says that by 2000 he had concluded that “making the basic building blocks of life is easy.” A harder question: How did the right building blocks get incorporated? Amino acids come in multiple forms, but only some are used by living things to form proteins. How did they find each other?
In a windowed corner of a lab building at the Carnegie Institution, Hazen is drawing molecules on a notepad and sketching the earliest steps on the road to life. “We’ve got a prebiotic ocean and down in the ocean floor, you’ve got rocks,” he says. “And basically there’s molecules here that are floating around in solution, but it’s a very dilute soup.” For a newly formed amino acid in the early ocean, it must have been a lonely life indeed. The familiar phrase “primordial soup” sounds rich and thick, but it was no beef stew. It was probably just a few molecules here and there in a vast ocean. “So the chances of a molecule over here bumping into this one, and then actually a chemical reaction going on to form some kind of larger structure, is just infinitesimally small,” Hazen continues. He thinks that rocks—whether the ore deposits that pile up around hydrothermal vents or those that line a tide pool on the surface—may have been the matchmakers that helped lonely amino acids find each other.
Rocks have texture, whether shiny and smooth or craggy and rough. Molecules on the surface of minerals have texture, too. Hydrogen atoms wander on and off a mineral’s surface, while electrons react with various molecules in the vicinity. An amino acid that drifts near a mineral could be attracted to its surface. Bits of amino acids might form a bond; form enough bonds and you’ve got a protein.
Back at the Carnegie lab, Hazen’s colleagues are looking into the first step in that courtship: Kateryna Klochko is preparing an experiment that—when combined with other experiments and a lot of math—should show how certain molecules stick to minerals. Do they adhere tightly to the mineral, or does a molecule attach in just one place, leaving the rest of it mobile and thereby increasing the chances it will link up to other molecules?
Klochko gets out a rack, plastic tubes and the liquids she needs. “It’s going to be very boring and tedious,” she warns. She puts a tiny dab of a powdered mineral in a four-inch plastic tube, then adds arginine, an amino acid, and a liquid to adjust the acidity. Then, while a gas bubbles through the solution, she waits…for eight minutes. The work may seem tedious indeed, but it takes concentration. “That’s the thing, each step is critical,” she says. “Each of them, if you make a mistake, the data will look weird, but you won’t know where you made a mistake.” She mixes the ingredients seven times, in seven tubes. As she works, “The Scientist” comes on the radio: “Nooooobody saaaaid it was easyyyy,” sings Coldplay vocalist Chris Martin.
After two hours, the samples go into a rotator, a kind of fast Ferris wheel for test tubes, to mix all night. In the morning, Klochko will measure how much arginine remains in the liquid; the rest of the amino acid will have stuck to the mineral powder’s tiny surfaces.
She and other researchers will repeat the same experiment with different minerals and different molecules, over and over in various combinations. The goal is for Hazen and his colleagues to be able to predict more complex interactions, like those that may have taken place in the earth’s early oceans.
How long will it take to go from studying how molecules interact with minerals to understanding how life began? No one knows. For one thing, scientists have never settled on a definition of life. Everyone has a general idea of what it is and that self-replication and passing information from generation to generation are key. Gerald Joyce, of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, jokes that the definition should be “something like ‘that which is squishy.’”
Hazen’s work has implications beyond the origins of life. “Amino-acids-sticking-to-crystals is everywhere in the environment,” he says. Amino acids in your body stick to titanium joints; films of bacteria grow inside pipes; everywhere proteins and minerals meet, amino acids are interacting with crystals. “It’s every rock, it’s every soil, it’s the walls of the building, it’s microbes that interact with your teeth and bones, it’s everywhere,” Hazen says.
After considering, for some time, how minerals may have helped life evolve, Hazen is now investigating the other side of the equation: how life spurred the development of minerals. He explains that there were only about a dozen different minerals—including diamonds and graphite—in dust grains that pre-date the solar system. Another 50 or so formed as the sun ignited. On earth, volcanoes emitted basalt, and plate tectonics made ores of copper, lead and zinc. “The minerals become players in this sort of epic story of exploding stars and planetary formation and the triggering of plate tectonics,” he says. “And then life plays a key role.” By introducing oxygen into the atmosphere, photosynthesis made possible new kinds of minerals—turquoise, azurite and malachite, for example. Mosses and algae climbed onto land, breaking down rock and making clay, which made bigger plants possible, which made deeper soil, and so on. Today there are about 4,400 known minerals—more than two-thirds of which came into being only because of the way life changed the planet. Some of them were created exclusively by living organisms.
Everywhere he looks, Hazen says, he sees the same fascinating process: increasing complexity. “You see the same phenomena over and over, in languages and in material culture—in life itself. Stuff gets more complicated.” It’s the complexity of the hydrothermal vent environment—gushing hot water mixing with cold water near rocks, and ore deposits providing hard surfaces where newly formed amino acids could congregate—that makes it such a good candidate as a cradle of life. “Organic chemists have long used test tubes,” he says, “but the origin of life uses rocks, it uses water, it uses atmosphere. Once life gets a foothold, the fact that the environment is so variable is what drives evolution.” Minerals evolve, life arises and diversifies, and along come trilobites, whales, primates and, before you know it, brass bands.
Helen Fields has written about snakehead fish and the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils for Smithsonian. Amanda Lucidon is based in Washington, D.C.
Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/The-Origins-of-Life.html#ixzz1DNkC4ldF
domingo, janeiro | 30 | 2011
Esta novidade de que aminoácidos estariam pregados em meteórito, que este meteórito teria pertencido a um planeta nos primórdios do sistema solar, o qual seria muito quente e por isso não poderia ter gerado os aminoácidos, e que estes aminoácidos teriam sido formados em lugar que não tem água!… Tem algo errado nestas hipóteses.
DE SÃO PAULO
Cientistas da Nasa (agência espacial americana) descobriram que alguns aminoácidos –elementos essenciais à vida na Terra– podem ter vindo do espaço, pegando carona em asteroides que se chocaram com a nossa atmosfera.
Os aminoácidos são importantíssimos porque ajudam a compor as proteínas, indispensáveis para a existência de todas as formas de vida no nosso planeta.
Ao estudar os fragmentos de um meteorito (pedaço de asteroide) que caiu no deserto africano em 2008, cientistas da Nasa comandados por Daniel Glavin do Centro Goddard de Voo Espacial, descobriram que os pedaços de rocha vindo do espaço continham aminoácidos do tipo canhoto.
Os aminoácidos podem ser de duas variedades: destros ou canhotos. Elas funcionam como imagens espelhadas. Algo como nossas mãos, uma com o polegar voltado para direita e outra, para a esquerda.
Na Terra, todos os seres vivos têm aminoácidos canhotos, como os do meteorito. Mas isso não quer dizer que a versão destra seja impossível por aqui. Cientistas já conseguiram sintetizá-la em laboratório.
O que eles não sabem ainda é por que os canhotos prevaleceram. ( A Teoria da Matriz/DNA tem boa explicação aqui, em outro artigo) Os fragmentos do meteorito podem, então, dar uma importante contribuição para matar essa charada.
Ao analisar essas moléculas, os pesquisadores se surpreenderam: alguns dos aminoácidos simplesmente não existiam na Terra, enquanto outros eram realmente bem difíceis de se encontrar na natureza.
Isso, de acordo com os autores do trabalho, publicado esta semana na revista “Meteoritics and Planetary Science”, comprovaria que o meteorito já teria chegado ao planeta com os aminoácidos, tornando impossível a hipótese de “contaminação” no ambiente.
Eles acreditam que o asteroide, batizado de 2008 TC3, é provavelmente uma parte de algum planeta que existiu nos primórdios do Sistema Solar. Mas, como a temperatura nesse planeta devia ser realmente muito alta, os cientistas acham que os aminoácidos não se formaram enquanto o astro ainda estava inteiro.
E o enigmas vão além: ao contrário dos aminoácidos da Terra, que precisam de água para se formar, as “moléculas ET” não tinham o líquido disponível no ambiente do meteorito.
Isso, de acordo com o chefe do trabalho, aumenta as possibilidades da existência de vida usando “ingredientes” até agora considerados impossíveis.
Glavin disse em entrevista ao “Science News” que, na opinião dele, se realmente existir uma forma de produzir aminoácidos sem água, isso então “aumentaria muito a probabilidade da existência de vida em outros lugares do Universo”.
Embora esta seja uma grande novidade, vale lembrar que os aminoácidos são apenas uma parte da vida. Para chegar até ela, ainda são necessários muitos outros fatores.