Posts Tagged ‘Panspermia’

TRAPPIST-1: Onde esta a maior chance da primeira descoberta de Vida fora da Terra. Panspermia?

sábado, junho 10th, 2017

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http://www.trappist.one/#

https://www.eso.org/public/unitedkingdom/images/eso1706o/

A size comparison of the planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system, lined up in order of increasing distance from their host star. The planetary surfaces are portrayed with an artist’s impression of their potential surface features, including water, ice, and atmospheres.

A size comparison of the planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system, lined up in order of increasing distance from their host star. The planetary surfaces are portrayed with an artist’s impression of their potential surface features, including water, ice, and atmospheres.

Enhanced interplanetary panspermia in the TRAPPIST-1 system

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.00878.pdf

We present a simple model for estimating the probability of interplanetary panspermia in the recently discovered system of seven planets orbiting the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1, and find that panspermia is potentially orders of magnitude more likely to occur in the TRAPPIST-1 system compared to the Earth-to-Mars case.

Nos apresentamos um simples modelo para estimar a probabilidade de panspermia interplanetaria no recente descoberto Sistema de sete planetas orbitando a ultrafria estrela ana TRAPPIST-1, e achamos que panspermia e’ potencialmente de grande magnitude para parecer mais possivel ocorrer em TRAPPIST-1 comparado com o caso de Terra-para-Marte.

As a consequence, we argue that the probability of abiogenesis is enhanced on the TRAPPIST-1 planets compared to the Solar system. By adopting models from theoretical ecology, we show that the number of species transferred and the number of life-bearing planets is also likely to be higher, because of the increased rates of immigration.

( continuar traducao)

 

Xanthine: Molécula Envolvida nas Origens da Vida e Encontrada em Meteóritos, Reforçam a Teoria da Matrix/DNA

sábado, dezembro 8th, 2012

Lendo o artigo sôbre Panspermia, descrito abaixo, descubro hoje a existência de uma molécula, Xanthine, e uma rápida pesquisa revelou que tudo nela, inclusive sia fórmula quimica, bate em tudo com as previsões dos modêlos teóricos da Matrix/DNA feitas há 30 anos atrás. É fascinante a explicação sôbre o que produziu esta molécula, porque ela foi feita aqui, e para que veio.  O artigo onde a encontrei estará em outro artigo a ser feito aqui porque n6ele estamos analizando a questào da panspermia:

Panspermia Theory for Life’s Origins Gets Boost from Top Scientists

http://mensnewsdaily.com/2008/06/20/panspermia-theory-for-lifes-origins-gets-boost-from-top-scientists/

2008-06-20

By NewsWax

Life is all about information – its replication and processing.” — Professor Paul Davies

(Artigo copiado aqui para ser analizado e comentado item por item pela Matrix/DNA Theory)

A team of scientists from the United States, United Kingdom and the Netherlands have determined that chemicals in a meteorite that form the building blocks of DNA and RNA had formed before the meteorite fell to Earth. In a paper published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters on June 15, the team documents an examination of molecules found in the Murchison meteorite, fragments of which landed near the village of Murchison, Victoria in Australia in 1969.

Previous studies had identified amino acids and sugars in the meteorite that were believed to have formed in space. The samples the current study examined included molecules of uracil and xanthine,

Matrix/DNA: “Isto relembra a previsão feita a 30 anos atrás baseada nos modêlos teóricos da Matrix/DNA de que a uracil é a molécula dos nucleotídeos que foi feita pela função sistêmica universal numero 5, a qual, quando está na forma de building block de galaxias, faz os astros denominados “cometas”, e quando está na forma de sistema celular faz os RNA’s M e T ( mensageiro e transportador). Xanthine é uma novidade para mim, portanto vamos conhecer ela recorrendo inicialmente à Wikipedia:

Xantina é uma base purínica, composto orgânico encontrado na urina e também em diversos tecidos do corpo humano, além de estar presente em algumas plantas.

Um exemplo comum de xantina é a cafeína.

O termo Xantina deriva do grego Xanthos – que alude à cor amarela…

Lol!… Não precisou mais que 3 minutes para identificar na fórmula da Matrix de onde veio a Xanthine e saber para que veio. Ela é uma catalista, ou seja, é como uma bacia chacoalhando e mexendo as substancias dentro dela. Diferentes velocidades do chacoalho, diferentes durações dos chacoalhos e talvez diferentes direçôes dos movimentos produzem diferentes compostos finais. Isto é, a grosso modo, denominado “catálise”. A Xanthine foi produzida aqui na Terra pelas particulas-informação vindas de radiações estelares como o Sol, e/ou de radiação de nucleos planetários, na forma de fótons, que invadem átomos “inertes” obrigando-os à novas conexões, na tentativa de reproduzir o sistema de onde vieram ( pura ação genética).  As informações embutidas na Xanthine se referem ao trecho do circuito sustêmico da fórmula da Matrix/DNA que vai da Função 7 à Função 1. Ou seja, no corpo humano vai do órgão “fígado” ao órgão “coração”; no sistema celular é o trecho que vai da organela “lisossoma” ao nucleo celular: no building block astronomico é o trecho que vai do cadaver estelar ao vortex nuclear. Pela sua ação catalizadora, eu aposto que suas informações sejam mais relacionadas à ultima parte do segmento daquele trecho, devendo já conter metade de informações para elaborar o vortex: ela faz o que faz o vortex no espaço sideral – chacoalhar massa e energia degradada. Se no meteórito encontramos uracil e xanthine juntos, isto significa que a o vortex que está sendo iniciado na forma de Xanthine já está recebendo cometas, espermatozóides do espaço, o que, a nivel biologico significa que naquele meteórito já estava toda a infraestrutura instalada para se iniciar a construção da Vida, ou melhor, de um par de base de nucleotideos. Fantástico!

A fórmula quimica da xanthine reforça nossas interpretações. Vemos um ring completo, com seis átomos ou seja, hexagonal ( o que significa que a forma astronomica foi copiada uma vez e completa, mais uma estensão com uma figura pentagonal, cinco átomos, o que significa que uma segunda cópia da mesma forma foi parada na função 7 ( não conta a F5, que é o ramo interno do fluxo sistêmico, nem conta a F1, que representa-se como a primeira cópia em torno da qual se desenvolve a segunda).  A forte presença do átomo N ( nitrogênio) na segunda cópia (segundo anel) é sempre indicativa de que a fórmula quimica expressa dominantemente o aspecto entrópico degenerativo da face direita da Matrix, pois êste átomo tem numero atômico 7, justamente um a mais do que o Carbono, que na Terra é a cópia fiel da Matrix astronomica. Ora, se um átomo tem em si o sistema completo (6 atomos) e mais um somando 7, isto significa que êle está reforçando a espressão da Função 7 e já abrindo caminho para a construção da Função 1. Por isso a fórmula inteira da Xanthine é esta mensagem: ” aplique-se a êste composto movimentos expressados por mim ( direção, duração, velocidade) que faça um cadaver de sistema ser mais fragmentado, degradado, para ser ressuscitado, ou seja, que um sistema seja reciclado, reiniciado”. Veja na Wikipédia esta informação: “xanthine é o processo resultante da degradação de uma purina”, o que bate mais uma vez com nossas previsões.   Assim a descrição do fenômeno com palavras como está no texto da Wikipedia bate com a informação revelada pela fórmula quimica, e as duas descrições bate com a descrição da fórmula astronomica da Matrix/DNA e as três descrições batem com a descrição da Matrix/DNA sôbre o que são nucleotideos, para depois tôdas estas descrições baterem com o significado existencial que a Matrix/DNA sugeriu para atomos, galaxias, células, corpos humanos. Assim funciona uma lógica numa teoria racional (claro, uma pobre racionalidade como só poderia ser a racionalidade limitada ao nosso pequenino cérebro perdido nêste pontinho insignificante dêste imenso Universo. Com o avançar do nosso conhecimento deve avançar o alcance da nossa racionalidade e então, suponho, mais completa e rica será a descrição).

Copiemos aqui a fórmula da Xanthine:

Xanthine A Molécula na Origem da Vida do trecho entre F7 e F1

Xanthine A Molécula na Origem da Vida do trecho entre F7 e F1

E sua aparência como compôsto atômico:

Xanthine: A Molécula na Origem da Vida do Trecho entre F7 e F1 - Aparência Atômica

Xanthine: A Molécula na Origem da Vida do Trecho entre F7 e F1 - Aparência Atômica

Wikipedia:

Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. A number ofstimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine.

Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation.

Terei que rever tudo sôbre purinas, guanine, PNP, para aprender mais como é isso tudo. Por enquanto, paro aqui porque o trabalho está exigindo minha presença lá fora, para retornar e continuar isto se a vida o permitir.

How Life Turned Left? Suggestion From Matrix/DNA Theory to NASA-Astrobiology Research

terça-feira, agosto 14th, 2012

At the “home” page of this website there is the news that The Matrix/DNA formula is suggesting a rational explanation for the question “Why life turned left” . Everybody can see it clear if looking to the formula. The left side of Matrix’s face ( from F 2 to F 4 ) is where a new body is born, growing, till arriving to maturity and ability for reproduction. The energy is up in a phase of construction. It is the force among the chaos that drives matter to an ordered state. But the energy is covered, occult, as the body’s nucleus, then, there is more mass than energy. If we see the formula in its state as astronomical system, this left face goes from the baby-astro to pulsar. In another hand, the piece of circuitry comprised from F 6 to F7 (and part of F 1) is the right side of Matrix’s face when the body got maturity and immediately the energy began to fall, a phenomenon that can be measured as entropy. The energy gains the surface of the body, and the mass begins to disappear. In its shape as astronomic system, this piece of circuitry begins with a supernova and goes to the stellar cadaver ( nebula off dust).

Then… why Nature choose only the left face for building biological systems? Why not a mixed moisture with left and right faces? The explanation is rational. If the first molecules were complete, life should be in its initial stage till today, forever. It never would be able to do the next evolutionary step. Because a complete molecule, containing the left and right faces, has the force of death with her. It would be a copy of closed system, just as the astronomic system. Nature needed a opened system, one that kept the doors opened to evolution, to the next evolutionary steps.

Ok, but, the problem of the NASA-Astrobiology team is how to identify, in the actual state of any planet or moon, those states that are suitable for beginning the biological formation. As a poor hard-work man I have no time just now for trying to get the suggestions from the Matrix formula. The issue becomes more complicated because I am very confused when calculating what kind of evolutionary product could be naturally obtained from a mechanical/Newtonian system, like the Matrix formula is suggesting as the astronomic system creator of life. It is possible to do that, I believe, but it needs a lot of theoretical calculations and I have no time for doing it. Another problem is that we need to study the atomic formula of several natural elements, like methane, sulfur, and making comparisons with the atomic formula of the first amino-acids, for detecting the complementary systemic circuits. I know that the NASA team will not do that because they don’t know and don’t understand the rationality behind the Matrix formula. The final conclusion is that our beloved Humanity needs to know where else there is life and where else is suitable for life, because we will need to move out from this loved planet-home one day and we need the wealth, the resources for improving the life of billions of human beings, which source can be in others life’s forms. So, I will continuing this research…

How Life Turned Left

July 25, 2012 / Written by: Bill Steigerwald

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/how-life-turned-left/?commented=0#txpCommentInputForm

Left and Right Handed Molecules

Left and Right Handed Molecules - This is an artist's concept of excess left-hand aspartic acid created in asteroids and delivered to Earth via meteorite impacts. The line at the bottom is a chromatogram showing that left-hand aspartic acid (tall peak in the center) was four times more abundant in the meteorite sample than right-hand aspartic acid (smaller peak to the left). Credit: NASA/Hrybyk-Keith, Mary P.

1) Comment by Louis Morelli ( waiting moderation) (Tue, Aug, 14, 2012)

Please, why we are calling “left” and “right” if there is no possible point of reference? Look to the draw above. If you take the left-hand aspartic acid (tall peak in the center) and turn it 180* horizontally and at same time, vertically, and put it side by side with the molecule at smaller peak, keeping both vertically, the right will be left and vice-versa. But, then, the result is a figure in the same shape of DNA, which was the normal course of evolution. I know that this issue is only a human concept, like the concept of left and right human hands is wrong since that Earth is rounded and has no point of reference. But the position of molecules here is very important because at every natural system’s circuitry the left side is always “energy up” and the right is “energy down” ( if the model of natural system in the Matrix/DNA Theory is correct). This is about the direction of information inside a system, and if we don’t know the right direction our research and meanings could be wrong. Why life has chosen the left hand? Because it is energy up, where there is no entropy for stopping the initial start of life. Any answers? Thanks…

2) Ask a Question to an Astrobiologist, by Louis Morelli

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov/ask-an-astrobiologist/submit-a-question/#zcrcc6ec1bb803aeccebb4e5fadfe877578

In the Tagish Lake meteorite there was less alanine than aspartic acid, both left-handed. Possible explanations should be:
1) Alanine is as common in living bodies as aspartic acid today, but not in Nature at life’s origins. The strong presence of heavy atoms in alanine suggests that it performs the functions of right handed bi-lateral symmetry. So, why a left handed performs right handed functions? because right handed are entropic functions that brings death to systems, and at the beginning, Nature was in needs of molecules that could fix a reproductive process before dying.
2) Biological systems, aka “life” were created by and inside astronomic systems. So, the later is merely evolutionary step from the earlier. Informations from astronomic systems are transmitted by photons from stellar radiation in a clockwise direction, then, first, are created biological molecules left handed, despite that non-biological are equal amount. Aspartic acid is genuine left-handed with light atoms, then, it is produced more than alanine;
3) Primordial aminoacids were produced by mechanical/Newtonian process and not by biological process, so, the production of both aminoacids could be equal, but nature has selected the left ones because they contains energy up. Please what do you think about these suggestions from a different theoretical cosmological model, called Matrix/DNA Theory?

xxx

How Life Turned Left

(Sorry to authors of this article that I am coping it here, but this copy will be here only temporary: is the unique way I have for to study it in deep and registering the useful data end the suggestions from the Matrix.)

Researchers analyzing meteorite fragments that fell on a frozen lake in Canada have developed an explanation for the origin of life’s handedness – why living things only use molecules with specific orientations. The work also gave the strongest evidence to date that liquid water inside an asteroid leads to a strong preference of left-handed over right-handed forms of some common protein amino acids in meteorites. The result makes the search for extraterrestrial life more challenging.

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Comment from Matrix/DNA:

From Wikipedia: Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D)[3] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HOOCCH(NH2)CH2COOH. The carboxylate anionsalt, or ester of aspartic acid is known as aspartate. The L-isomer of aspartate is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GAU and GAC.

Aspartic_acid

Aspartic_acid

Aspartic Acid 1

Aspartic Acid 1 - Left or Right Handed ? - Red (Oxygen), Black (Carbon), Blue (Nitrogen) White ( Hidrogen)

Liquid water and ice structures

Liquid water and ice structures - Red ( Oxygen), White ( Hidrogen)

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“Our analysis of the amino acids in meteorite fragments from Tagish Lake gave us one possible explanation for why all known life uses only left-handed versions of amino acids to build proteins,” said Dr. Daniel Glavin of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Glavin is lead author of a paper on this research published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

In January, 2000, a large meteoroid exploded in the atmosphere over northern British Columbia, Canada, and rained fragments across the frozen surface of Tagish Lake. Because many people witnessed the fireball, pieces were collected within days and kept preserved in their frozen state. This ensured that there was very little contamination from terrestrial life. “The Tagish Lake meteorite continues to reveal more secrets about the early Solar System the more we investigate it,” said Dr. Christopher Herd of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, a co-author on the paper who provided samples of the Tagish Lake meteorite for the team to analyze. “This latest study gives us a glimpse into the role that water percolating through asteroids must have played in making the left-handed amino acids that are so characteristic of all life on Earth.”

Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life, used in everything from structures like hair to enzymes, the catalysts that speed up or regulate chemical reactions. Just as the 26 letters of the alphabet are arranged in limitless combinations to make words, life uses 20 different amino acids in a huge variety of arrangements to build millions of different proteins. Amino acid molecules can be built in two ways that are mirror images of each other, like your hands. Although life based on right-handed amino acids would presumably work fine, they can’t be mixed. “Synthetic proteins created using a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids just don’t work,” says Dr. Jason Dworkin ofNASA Goddard, co-author of the study and head of the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory, where the analysis was performed.

Since life can’t function with a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids, researchers want to know how life – at least, life on Earth — got set up with the left-handed ones. “The handedness observed in biological molecules – left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars – is a property important for molecular recognition processes and is thought to be a prerequisite for life,” said Dworkin. All ordinary methods of synthetically creating amino acids result in equal mixtures of left- and right-handed amino acids. Therefore, how the nearly exclusive production of one hand of such molecules arose from what were presumably equal mixtures of left and right molecules in a prebiotic world has been an area of intensive research.

The team ground up samples of the Tagish Lake meteorites, mixed them into a hot-water solution, then separated and identified the molecules in them using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. “We discovered that the samples had about four times as many left-handed versions of aspartic acid as the opposite hand,” says Glavin. Aspartic acid is an amino acid used in every enzyme in the human body. It is also used to make the sugar substitute Aspartame. “Interestingly, the same meteorite sample showed only a slight left-hand excess (no more than eight percent) for alanine, another amino acid used by life.”

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Comments by Matrix/DNA:

Wikipedia: Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins.[3] D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics.

Alanine Aminoacid

Alanine Aminoacid

Alanine 1

Alanine 1

I need reading the topic in Wikipedia that has a lot of information, included the fact alanine is linked with the liver. Liver is an organ F 7 – a function of right handed, and it is re-enforced by the presence of heavy atoms from right hand at alanine composition. What it means? Observe the strong presence of carbon giving balance to the structure. By the way, alanine is non-essential for humans so, it appears that alanine has entered in proteins at a later stage of life’s formation. It brings from the sky the sentence of death to complexes molecules ( or the necessary entropic function).

xxx

“At first, this made no sense, because if these amino acids came from contamination by terrestrial life, both amino acids should have large left-handed excesses, because both are common in biology,” says Glavin. “However, a large left-hand excess in one and not the other tells us that they were not created by life but instead were made inside the Tagish Lake asteroid.” The team confirmed that the amino acids were probably created in space using isotope analysis.

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Comments by Matrix/DNA:

Correct! Wonderful! Mr. Glavin and the Matrix are in total agreement here. Today, both, alanine and aspartic acid are common in biology, maybe equal amounts in human beings, due later in evolution, when the operations for beginnings of life was finished, Nature inserted the death functions of the right Matrix’s face for bringing on the ability for biological systems incorporating mutations. Since the meteorit is from the beginning of solar system, it is repository of the first informations that came with photons from solar radiation, and these informations are about the left face. Every random photon-information about the right face should be dissolved quickly, because the entropic effect. We see above that Matrix was confused suggesting that alanine has the appearance and functions of right face, so, why she was present in earlier times, and next to other aminoacids? The explanation comes from the very fact that its quantity were less than aspartic acid. The answer is that solar radiation in the beginning of solar system was less able to produce molecules from the right face, and those produced was quickly dissolved. Then, this alanine in the meteor, and the aspartic acid were not created by life and so, by the mechanical Newtonian astronomic system.

Another issue that we need to solve here is how Nature created biological molecules that are left handed but performs right handed functions. I think that it is easy if we know that the right side of DNA stream is merely the continuation of the flow of information coming from the left side. It is the left side of DNA that creates its right side (at least in the RNA world).

xxx ( I have stopped here today).

Isotopes are versions of an element with different masses; for example, carbon 13 is a heavier, and less common, variety of carbon. Since the chemistry of life prefers lighter isotopes, amino acids enriched in the heavier carbon 13 were likely created in space.

“We found that the aspartic acid and alanine in our Tagish Lake samples were highly enriched in carbon 13, indicating they were probably created by non-biological processes in the parent asteroid,” said Dr. Jamie Elsila of NASAGoddard, a co-author on the paper who performed the isotopic analysis. This is the first time that carbon isotope measurements have been reported for these amino acids in Tagish Lake. The carbon 13 enrichment, combined with the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine, provides very strong evidence that some left-handed proteinogenic amino acids — ones used by life to make proteins — can be produced in excess in asteroids, according to the team.

Some have argued that left-handed amino acid excesses in meteorites were formed by exposure to polarized radiation in the solar nebula – the cloud of gas and dust from which asteroids, and eventually the Solar System, were formed. However, in this case, the left-hand aspartic acid excesses are so large that they cannot be explained by polarized radiation alone. The team believes that another process is required.

Additionally, the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine gave the team a critical clue as to how these amino acids could have been made inside the asteroid, and therefore how a large left-hand excess could arise before life originated on Earth.

“One thing that jumped out at me was that alanine and aspartic acid can crystallize differently when you have mixtures of both left-handed and right-handed molecules,” said Dr. Aaron Burton, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow at NASA Goddard and a co-author on the study. “This led us to find several studies where researchers have exploited the crystallization behavior of molecules like aspartic acid to get left-handed or right-handed excesses. Because alanine forms different kinds of crystals, these same processes would produce equal amounts of left- and right-handed alanine. We need to do some more experiments, but this explanation has the potential to explain what we see in the Tagish Lake meteorite and other meteorites.”

The team believes a small initial left-hand excess could get amplified by crystallization and dissolution from a saturated solution with liquid water. Some amino acids, like aspartic acid, have a shape that lets them fit together in a pure crystal – one comprised of just left-handed or right-handed molecules. For these amino acids, a small initial left- or right-hand excess could become greatly amplified at the expense of the opposite-handed crystals, similar to the way a large snowball gathers more snow and gets bigger more rapidly when rolled downhill than a small one. Other amino acids, like alanine, have a shape that prefers to join together with their mirror image to make a crystal, so these crystals are comprised of equal numbers of left- and right-handed molecules. As these “hybrid” crystals grow, any small initial excess would tend to be washed out for these amino acids. A requirement for both of these processes is a way to convert left-handed to right-handed molecules, and vice-versa, while they are dissolved in the solution.

This process only amplifies a small excess that already exists. Perhaps a tiny initial left-hand excess was created by conditions in the solar nebula. For example, polarized ultraviolet light or other types of radiation from nearby stars might favor the creation of left-handed amino acids or the destruction of right-handed ones, according to the team. This initial left-hand excess could then get amplified in asteroids by processes like crystallization. Impacts from asteroids and meteorites could deliver this material to Earth, and left-handed amino acids might have been incorporated into emerging life due to their greater abundance, according to the team. Also, similar enrichments of left-handed amino acids by crystallization could have occurred on Earth in ancient sediments that had water flowing through them, such as the bottoms of rivers, lakes, or seas, according to the team.

The result complicates the search for extraterrestrial life – like microbial life hypothesized to dwell beneath the surface of Mars, for example. “Since it appears a non-biological process can create a left-hand excess in some kinds of amino acids, we can’t use such an excess alone as proof of biological activity,” says Glavin.

The research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, the NASA Cosmochemistry Program, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

The paper, “Unusual nonterrestrial l-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite,” was published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and is available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

Bill Steigerwald
William.A.Steigerwald@nasa.gov
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Panspermia: A diferença em Relação ao Reprodutivismo da Teoria da Matriz/DNA Universal

quinta-feira, setembro 30th, 2010

Muita gente está confundindo a hipótese da origem da vida da Teoria da Matriz com a hipótese da panspermia, a qual tem sido ressuscitada e revigorada ultimamente devido à presença de materiais orgânicos vindos com meteóritos de Marte e do espaço sideral. Nêste artigo pretendo delinear as diferenças entre as duas visões do mundo.

Definição em Português na Wikipedia:

Panspermia é a hipótese segundo a qual as sementes de vida são prevalentes em todo o Universo e que a vida na Terra começou quando uma dessas sementes aqui chegou, tendo-se propagado.

Reprodutivismo: É a hipótese segundo a qual as sementes dos sistemas biológicos – aka “seres vivos” – são prevalentes em todo o Universo e que as produzidas pela própria Terra são mera continuidade evolucionária de astros como a Terra, que se apresentam como “semi-vivos/semi-mecânicos” quando observados através do modêlo de proto-sistema formado pelo astro sob um ciclo vital. Desde que em tal modêlo a estrêla Sol está incluida como mera forma do astro durante seu ciclo vital, o produto da irradiação da estrêla mais a irradiação do nucleo terrestre fornece os bits-informação necessários e suficientes para organizar a matéria terrestre em sistemas biológicos, desde que esta matéria tenha sido tratada pela novidade terrestre que é o estado líquido da matéria possibilitando as reações químicas orgânicas.

A panspermia apenas transfere o problema da origem da vida da Terra para outro astro, sem soluciona-lo. O que teria a mais a sôpa primordial do outro astro que a sôpa primordial da Terra não teria tido?! É preciso apresentar a procedência dos elementos e substâncias que constituíram o primeiro sistema vivo, apresentar quais foram as fôrças naturais atuantes e seus níveis de intensidade apropriados, descrever os mecanismos e um parâmetro factual razoavel e sobejamente conhecido por todos de processo pelo qual se desenvolveu todo o enrêdo… como apenas a Teoria da Matriz o faz.

(a continuar)

Panspermia:A diferença entre esta teoria e a teoria da Matriz Universal

quarta-feira, setembro 22nd, 2010

Como veremos no artigo abaixo sôbre como anda hoje a Teoria da Panspermia, nota-se que a Panspermia andou rondando a região onde estava escondido o tesouro – a arca contendo o segrêdo por trás da origem da Vida na Terra – mas nunca encontrou-o, sendo que este feito só foi realizado pela Teoria da Matriz Universal.

Muitos pesquisadores hoje estão convencidos que a vida veio do espaço e não se originou de uma sôpa primordial terrestre como se acreditou até a década passada. Mas a Panspermia apenas transfere o problema, não o resolve. Ou seja, a questão de como a vida se originou aqui torna-se a questão de como a vida se originou no espaço. A Teoria da Matriz resolve a questão quando descobre duas novidades:
1) O processo da Macro-Evolução Universal:
A Evolução funciona como a expansão das ondas na água de um lago quando nela se choca algum objeto. O espaço que o objeto ocupa na água desloca por meio de pulsos a água circundante para o espaço externo enquanto as ondas de informações criadas pelo objeto, como a onda do som viaja através dos pulsos como a espuma que se forma sôbre as águas. Em tôdo ponto das águas existem partículas, ciscos, objetos, os quais vão sendo empurrados para as ultimas ondas mais externas. Ora, então cada nova onda formada recebe os ciscos e as informações da ultima onda, e quando enfraquece a fôrça de seu pulso, estes ciscos e informações estagnam antes que o pulso termine, o qual, ao avançar ainda na água, atinge novas regiões onde existem novos ciscos e informações, os quais são aduzidos aos anteriores. Êstes novos ciscos e informações é o que aumenta a complexidade dos corpos sob evolução. Portanto, evolução recapitula e complexifica.

2) Um Novo Modêlo Teórico Cosmológico onde o Estado Evolucionário do Mundo Astronomico teria sido Transmitido Macro-Genéticamente à Matéria na Superficie da Terra, ou qualquer outro astro celeste em idênticas condições.

O planeta Terra, assim como qualquer astro, está sujeito a um ciclo vital, o qual demanda um certo período de tempo, mas quando se alinha todas as diferentes formas de um astro apresentadas durante um ciclo vital num unico momento obtem-se um protótipo de proto-sistema que se manifestado ou construído com matéria torna-se um par simétrico de nucleotideos os quais são as unidades fundamentais de informação do RNA e DNA, os quais por sua vez organizam a matéria ao redor em sistemas biológicos.

Portanto, creio que a explicação do porque a Panspermia não encontrou o pote com o tesouro foi devido a uma traição da Teoria Astronômica, que estava informando serem os astros uma coisa diferente do que eles são na realidade. Vejamos o artigo:

by William Hamilton III

from AstroSciences Website

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_

astrosciences03.htm

Panspermia: An idea whose time has come.

On March 27, 2002 a news story broke on Space.com that announced:

“In two separate studies, scientists mimicked conditions of outer space, doused frozen interstellar cocktails with ultraviolet radiation and created amino acids, which are critical components of life.

The work shows that amino acids could be created around many developing stars, which emit high doses of UV radiation, and that life would have had just as good a chance of forming on planets that might exist around those stars as it did here on Earth.

The studies also support a growing expectation among many scientists that life on Earth may have been seeded from space, rather than having been forged only from raw materials that developed on Earth.”

 

This story went on to say:

“Already, scientists have found amino acids in meteorites — chunks of asteroids or comets that landed on Earth. Amino acids, though not life itself, may have jumpstarted life on Earth with their arrival, some scientists have long suspected.

Another theory has held that life on Earth developed out of a soup of lesser materials.
Remarkable as it might be to think of life’s ingredients arriving on a space rock, researchers have sought to show that amino acids might also form in interstellar space and thus be ubiquitous. If so, then the raw material of terrestrial life would date back to an earlier time, before comets and asteroids were born.
 

 

Amino acids are literally raining down out of the sky,” said one of the team’s leaders, Max Bernstein of the SETI Institute and NASA’s Ames Research Center, “and if that’s not a big deal then I don’t know what is.”

The laboratory experiments, one conducted by Bernstein’s U.S. team and the other by a European group, irradiated mixtures of ice that contained molecules known to exist in interstellar space. The work was done in vacuum chambers under the low temperatures found in space.
Svante Arrhenius is one of the major figures in physical chemistry and had a major role in the development of ideas about ions, solutions, acids and alkalis, and rates of reactions. His recognition of the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has perhaps been neglected as this problem is considered to be a late twentieth century phenomenon. Arrhenius conjectured that bacteria may be able to survive the cold of space and survive heating as they entered earth’s atmosphere from space. This revived the old concept of panspermia. Svante Arrhenius theorized that bacterial spores propelled through space by light pressure were the seeds of life on Earth.
This idea was further expanded on by Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe who reintroduced the idea of panspermia as an alternative theory on the origin of life. Since Hoyle believed that life could not have arisen on earth by chance, that evolution was not the product of chance, he advocated a strong theory of panspermia. Some scientists have united this theory of panspermia with James Lovelock’s teleological theory of earth as Gaia and call the new theory Cosmic Ancestry (1)

Some of the findings of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe are quoted here:

“In 1968, polycyclic aromatic molecules were detected in interstellar dust.

In 1972, convincing evidence that the dust contained porphyrins was obtained.

Then in 1974 Wickramasinghe demonstrated that there are complex organic polymers, specifically molecules of “polyformaldehyde” in space. These molecules are closely related to cellulose, which is very abundant in biology.

By 1975, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe were convinced that organic polymers were a substantial fraction of the dust. This line of thought was considered wildly speculative at that time. Now, however, that organic polymers in space are abundant and may be necessary for life is well accepted. Today we often see stories about things like vinegar among the stars, or “buckyballs” from space as “the seeds of life”. To that extent the scientific paradigm for the origin of life on Earth has already shifted. “

The means by which spores, microbes, and other biochemical matter arrives on earth is principally through the agency of meteorites and comets that frequently impacted the earth in its youth. Bacteria has been detected in the highest regions of the atmosphere where some scientist suppose it arrived from space.
There is even some indication that microbes have been found in lunar soil.
Another form of panspermia is ballistic panspermia. This refers to debris being knocked off a planet like Mars, reaching escape velocity, and entering the atmosphere of another planet with passenger microbes intact. The ALH84001 Martian meteorite found in Alan Hills, Antarctica, is an example of possible ballistic panspermia.

Benjamin Weiss is a graduate student in planetary science at the California Institute of Technology and Joseph Kirschvink is Professor of Geobiology at the California Institute of Technology and they had this to say about tests conducted on the Martian meteorite:

“Confirming Evidence
These results demonstrate that ALH84001 had not been heated to even 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) since before leaving the Martian surface, confirming Melosh’s theory that rocks could be ejected off the surface of Mars without being heat sterilized.

click above image to enlarge
At such temperatures, prokaryotes (simple, one-celled organisms without well-defined nuclei) and even many eukaryotes (organisms with well-defined nuclei) like fungi or plant seeds might survive the launch. Unfortunately we cannot constrain the formation temperature of the carbonate globules-although we think the observed magnetization originated on Mars, we don’t yet know exactly when that took place. (Constraining the temperature at which the carbonate globules in ALH84001 formed would help settle the debate over possible life traces in the meteorite. A high temperature could rule out life as we know it in the rock; a low formation temperature would be conducive to life.)
Although it’s unlikely that ALH84001 itself brought Martians to Earth (it spent nearly 15 million years wandering through cold, airless space), it is not unreasonable to assume that if there were life on Mars, other rocks have already transferred it here. Computer dynamic simulations suggest that about a billion tons of Martian rocks have landed on Earth since the solar system formed, and every million years about a dozen fist-size rocks are transferred from Mars to Earth in just a couple of years. In fact, one in ten million of the arriving Martian rocks could have been transferred in less than a year!
Other researchers have brought back living bacterial spores from an orbiting satellite where they spent more than five years bathed in strong ultraviolet light in a deep vacuum. We know, too, that such bacteria can survive the high pressures and shock they might encounter during ejection. Evidently, it is likely that if there were Martian microorganisms, they have been transported to Earth throughout most of our planet’s history. Maybe, then, we don’t need to go all the way to Mars to find Martians.”

 

There is even a society for launching our own seeds into space and populating other worlds with life from earth.
To put all of this in perspective, the idea that genetic information which developed and evolved elsewhere in the universe and planted itself on earth through panspermia so as to evolve organisms that are similar to organisms that have already evolved on other planets might be the reason why intelligent, artifact-making lifeforms elsewhere may be as human as those on earth.
In fact neuroscientist and astrobiologist Dr. Rhawn Joseph makes this bold statement on panspermia:

 

“The genetic seeds of life swarm throughout the cosmos, and these genetic “seeds,” these living creatures, fell to Earth, encased in stellar debris which pounded the planet for 700 millions years after the creation.
And just as DNA contains the genetic instructions for the creation of an embryo, neonate, child, and adult, and just as modern day microbes contain “human genes” which have contributed to the evolution of the human genome, these “seeds,” these living creatures, contained the DNA-instructions for the metamorphosis of all life, including woman and man.
DNA acts to purposefully modify the environment, which acts on gene selection, so as to fulfill specific genetic goals: the dispersal and activation of silent DNA and the replication of life forms that long ago lived on other planets. “

 

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Outros artigos sôbre panspermia:

InfoEscola » Biologia »

Panspermia

Por Mayara Lopes Cardoso

Proposta no final do século XIX, a panspermia é uma das teorias de origem e evolução da vida, que afirma que a vida é fruto de sementes dispersas no Universo, e que a Terra é apenas um dos planetas que recebeu essa semente, que se propagou com o passar do tempo, dando origem a todos as formas vivas existentes hoje.

Anterior à Panspermia, a teoria aceita era a de Geração Espontânea, que defendia que a vida era oriunda de matéria desprovida de vida. Depois de vários estudos científicos, a abiogênese (do grego, a = sem, bio = vida, gênese = origem, “origem não biológica”) foi derrubada, hoje sabemos que a vida é somente procedente de matéria viva.

Segundo a teoria da Panspermia, formulada pelo físico sueco Arrhenius, a Terra teria sofrido uma inseminação por organismos, partículas provenientes de espaços externos ao planeta, chegando à Terra através de poeira cósmico ou meteoritos. O argumento apresentado para tal hipótese é a presença de matéria orgânica em meteoritos encontrados na Terra, como certos tipos de aminoácidos, formaldeído, álcool etílico, tese que foi contradita pelo fato de não ser admitida a sobrevivência de microrganismos a temperaturas tão diferentes da qual são procedentes. Além disso, tais moléculas podem se arranjar de maneira natural no ambiente, sem ter, para isso, qualquer influência biológica.

A Panspermia deu origem a duas novas vertentes: a Nova Panspermia e a Panspermia Dirigida. A primeira, estabelecida pelos cientistas Fred Hoyle juntamente com Chandra Wickramasinghe, defendia que vida foi disseminada não só pela Terra, mas por todo o Universo, e que esses “esporos de vida” lançados nos planetas, já eram dotados de “comandos” que seriam responsáveis pelo seu desenvolvimento. Nessa teoria, ainda, os vírus são mencionados como organismos vindos do espaço, advindos de outros planetas. Em estudos de poeira interestelar, cientistas encontraram polímeros orgânicos que muito têm em comum com a celulose, mais um indício de que a vida poderia sim, ter origem cósmica.

Já a Panspermia Dirigida, proposta pelos cientistas Francas Circo e Lesei Orle, afirma que seres de outras galáxias, dotados de uma inteligência relativamente superior à nossa, teriam colonizado a Terra e vários outros planetas também, deixando em cada uma dessas colônias, determinadas moléculas orgânicas e elementos como o molibdênio, elemento raro na Terra e de grande importância para o bom funcionamento das enzimas essenciais ao metabolismo dos seres vivos.

Tais teorias geraram discussões acaloradas pela comunidade científica, e, embora a Panspermia seja irrefutável, não se chegou, até hoje, a uma conclusão acerca da origem da vida no nosso planeta, e ainda, se há ou não vida em outros planetas do Sistema Solar.

Referências
http://ateus.net/artigos/ciencia/genese-da-vida/
http://www.notapositiva.com/trab_estudantes/trab_estudantes/cienciasnaturais/7teoriasorigevvida.htm
http://pt.scribd.com/doc/3533869/Panspermia-Uma-breve-historia-Marcelo-Gleiser
http://www.pensandonisso.com/mundo-real/panspermia-origem-extraterrestre-da-vida-na-terra/

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Outro artigo meu sôbre panspermia publicado aqui nêste website, excluído e copiado para cá para fazer uma síntese final:

Panspermia: A diferença em Relação ao Reprodutivismo da Teoria da Matriz/DNA Universal
quinta-feira, setembro | 30 | 2010

Muita gente está confundindo a hipótese da origem da vida da Teoria da Matriz com a hipótese da panspermia, a qual tem sido ressuscitada e revigorada ultimamente devido à presença de materiais orgânicos vindos com meteóritos de Marte e do espaço sideral. Nêste artigo pretendo delinear as diferenças entre as duas visões do mundo.

Definição em Português na Wikipedia:

Panspermia é a hipótese segundo a qual as sementes de vida são prevalentes em todo o Universo e que a vida na Terra começou quando uma dessas sementes aqui chegou, tendo-se propagado.

Reprodutivismo: É a hipótese segundo a qual as sementes dos sistemas biológicos – aka “seres vivos” – são prevalentes em todo o Universo e que as produzidas pela própria Terra são mera continuidade evolucionária de astros como a Terra, que se apresentam como “semi-vivos/semi-mecânicos” quando observados através do modêlo de proto-sistema formado pelo astro sob um ciclo vital. Desde que em tal modêlo a estrêla Sol está incluida como mera forma do astro durante seu ciclo vital, o produto da irradiação da estrêla mais a irradiação do nucleo terrestre fornece os bits-informação necessários e suficientes para organizar a matéria terrestre em sistemas biológicos, desde que esta matéria tenha sido tratada pela novidade terrestre que é o estado líquido da matéria possibilitando as reações químicas orgânicas.

A panspermia apenas transfere o problema da origem da vida da Terra para outro astro, sem soluciona-lo. O que teria a mais a sôpa primordial do outro astro que a sôpa primordial da Terra não teria tido?! É preciso apresentar a procedência dos elementos e substâncias que constituíram o primeiro sistema vivo, apresentar quais foram as fôrças naturais atuantes e seus níveis de intensidade apropriados, descrever os mecanismos e um parâmetro factual razoavel e sobejamente conhecido por todos de processo pelo qual se desenvolveu todo o enrêdo… como apenas a Teoria da Matriz o faz.