Posts Tagged ‘origin of life’

Universidades e Ciencias dominadas por uma ideologia na busca da solução para a origem da vida ( e a minha versão, da minha diferente ideologia).

Wednesday, July 15th, 2020

Was the Origin of Life a Fluke? Or Was It Physics? ( A origem da vida foi uma sorte, uma casualidade? Ou foi pela Física?)

By Ian O’Neill August 30, 2017

https://www.space.com/37988-did-life-emerge-from-physical-laws.html?utm_campaign=meetedgar&utm_medium=social&utm_source=meetedgar.com&fbclid=IwAR0gjviyr8j7MU3MmS_kzAf-AjPF_LQiTg-DhEXYrO1Ont_zhgslm5J5scU

Aqui pretendo copiar cada frase importante do texto e comenta-la sob o ponto de vista da Matrix/DNA, minha propria teoria ( em portugues).

Meu post nos comentarios desta noticia no Facebook, em 13/07/2020:

” The academic mindset has a wrong approach and in this way they never will find the natural right solution. This is the opinion of a naturalist philosopher studying this problem at Amazon jungle by seven years. That whole biosphere suggests a very different history than the labs are suggesting. So, I elaborate the Matrix/DNA Theory. There is no origins of life, the word and human concept “life”, in relation to real nature, is a big cause of our mistakes. Instead life or non-life there is the biological shape of a universal natural system, which can be in other shapes, as electromagnetic or astronomic mechanical. Since this universal system coming from the Big Bang is under evolution, it makes no sense saying humans are alive and atoms doesn’t. Physics does not produces Biology, Physics is about the mechanical skeleton of a natural system, instead, it is Biology that produces Physics, the meat produces the bones. So, we must search where else there is Biology and I found it in my theoretical models of atoms, galaxies, in the electromagnetic spectrum of light waves, etc. The big secret of natural information lays on photons and light waves, which are above Physics and Biology, our Science is not searching the networks of photons inside the systems. And so on, the world is a little bit more complex and multidimensional than the academics believes. I like to talk about this issue, between different world views, someone else?”

xxxxx

Interpretação/Discussão do Texto pela Matrix/DNA World View

Jeremy England, a biophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is trying to answer these profound questions. In 2013, he formulated a hypothesis that physics may spontaneously trigger chemicals to organize themselves in ways that seed “life-like” qualities.

Matrix/DNA: Porque “physics”? O que existia no princípio eram forças naturais – que talvez seja o que denominamos de energias, porque o efeito mais evidente dessas forças era produzir movimentos no meio da inércia – e provavelmente substâncias, mais etéreas, já que ainda não tinham os átomos constituidores das substancias materiais. Talvez existissem mais coisas que ainda desconhecemos ou estas coisas com outros nomes – como a espuma ou vibrações quânticas – mas seja como for, a totalidade do que existia era Natureza Total, e não apenas Física, entendida como aspecto do mundo material. E pelo fato de depois o mundo material conter biologia, mente, vida, etc, acho racional concluir que o que os físicos lidam era apenas parte da totalidade da Natureza, ou mundo material. Então não aceitamos o que Jeremy England diz, e isso deveria ser trocado por ” a Natureza, o mundo material talvez possa espontaneamente mover químicos a se organizarem, ou serem organizados, em compostos que semeiam qualidades ou propriedades vitais. Mas qual foi o resultado final dessa movimentação dos químicos? Um sistema e funcional, o sistema celular. Então foi um sistema que moveu os químicos pois apenas um sistema pode produzir sistemas, ou se estiver fragmentado, separado em suas partes, recompor-se. E falar em sistema engloba tudo na natureza, vai muito alem da Física.

Now, new research by England and a colleague suggests that physics may naturally produce self-replicating chemical reactions, one of the first steps toward creating life from inanimate substances.

Matrix/DNA: May? Ou can? May se traduz por “pode ser que”, então não se afirma, é uma teoria. Mas tudo bem, vamos ver qual foi o experimento laboratorial ou fato real observado. Eu sou propenso a duvidar disso enquanto não identificarem no prévio mundo físico alguma situação em que um composto mais complexo se reproduz, pois se não existe, seria dizer que pela primeira vez no Universo ou nestas regiões foi criado o fenômeno da reprodução, e isso seria magica.

This might be interpreted as life originating directly from the fundamental laws of nature, thereby removing luck from the equation. But that would be jumping the gun.

Matrix/DNA: Não podemos ter certeza que o cérebro humano disponha de todos os sensores ( e que os atuais estejam completos) para captar todas as leis fundamentais da natureza. E ninguém nunca poderá afirmar que conhece a totalidade da Natureza para poder afirmas que sabe tudo o que existe nela. Ele deveria dizer ” leis fundamentais na Natureza que detectamos…”

Life had to have come from something; there wasn’t always biology.

Matrix/DNA: O que é life, para o Universo, a Natureza? O que é biologia, para o Universo, a Natureza? Se perguntar-mos, o Universo deverá responder que não sabe nem porque os humanos criaram os conceitos embutidos nestes nomes. para mim, estes nomes representam objetos que foram produzidos na evolução deste planeta dentro do sistema solar dentro da galaxia dentro do Universo… do qual quase nada sei. Em outras palavras, vida e biologia vieram da evolução. E o que representa este outro nome criado pelos humanos, “evolução”? Bem, para mim só pode sugerir baseado no que conheço e vejo com meus olhos: na embriogênese vejo a forma de um corpo se transformar enquanto passa do simples para o mais complexo devido a expressão de informações que estavam inertes. Nenhum acaso aqui e também isso nunca foi estudado e não pertence a área da Física.

Biology is born from the raw and lifeless chemical components

Matrix/DNA: Bem, essa afirmação não pode ser cientifica porque a Ciência nunca demonstrou o evento em que químicos apenas produzem a biológica organização deles mesmos em sistemas. Para mim, existe a evolução universal de um único sistema natural que surgiu ou se formou com o Big Bang. Este sistema foi uma auto-projeção materializada de um sistema que está encriptado numa onda de luz natural. Esta onda se propaga por ondas, que podem ser divididas em sete tipos, devido suas frequências, vibrações comprimentos, etc. A primeira forma deste sistema foi feita pela primeira faixa da onda, a segunda forma pela segunda faixa… a organização da matéria no tipo biológico é uma produção da quarta faixa dessa onda. Também não posso demonstrar isso em laboratorio, portanto é teoria contra teoria, apesar de que no meu caso particular vejo mais evidencias e racionalidade na minha teoria. Porque vejo um feto aqui na embriogênese como um corpo “vivo” sob organização biológica que foi produzido pelo DNA que tem justamente a mesma configuração que vejo na onda de luz.

… that somehow organized themselves into prebiotic compounds, created the building blocks of life, formed basic microbes and then eventually evolved into the spectacular array of creatures that exist on our planet today. [7 Theories on the Origin of Life]

Matrix/DNA: Ótimo. Por favor, vamos pegar um bilhão de átomos separados entre si, de todos os tipos, vamos bota-los como um monte encima da prancha da mesa do laboratorio, vamos dar uma ajudazinha botando a mesa a vibrar, sacudir-se, e vamos assistir alguns átomos procurando outros átomos certos formando combinações certas para que apareça ali building blocks que continuarão a se moverem e se organizarem formando finalmente o primeiro sistema celular… da vida. Aí aplaudiremos e teremos mais um fato real a ser listado no rol da Ciência.

Bem… terei que pausar esta tarefa agora, mas volto depois…

“Abiogenesis” is when something nonbiological turns into something biological and England thinks thermodynamics might provide the framework that drives life-like behavior in otherwise lifeless chemicals. However, this research doesn’t bridge life-like qualities of a physical system with the biological processes themselves, England said.

“I would not say I have done anything to investigate the ‘origin of life’ per se,” England told Live Science. “I think what’s interesting to me is the proof of principle – what are the physical requirements for the emergence of life-like behaviors?”

Self-organization in physical systems

When energy is applied to a system, the laws of physics dictate how that energy dissipates. If an external heat source is applied to that system, it will dissipate and reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, like a cooling cup of coffee left on a desk. Entropy, or the amount of disorder in the system, will increase as heat dissipates. But some physical systems may be  sufficiently out of equilibrium that they “self-organize” to make best use of an external energy source, triggering interesting self-sustaining chemical reactions that prevent the system from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium and thus maintaining an out-of-equilibrium state, England speculates. (It’s as if that cup of coffee spontaneously produces a chemical reaction that sustains a hotspot in the center of the fluid, preventing the coffee from cooling to an equilibrium state.) He calls this situation “dissipation-driven adaptation” and this mechanism is what drives life-like qualities in England’s otherwise lifeless physical system.

A key life-like behavior is self-replication, or (from a biological viewpoint) reproduction. This is the basis for all life: It starts simple, replicates, becomes more complex and replicates again. It just so happens that self-replication is also a very efficient way of dissipating heat and increasing entropy in that system.

In a study published July 18 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  England and co-author Jordan Horowitz tested their hypothesis. They carried out computer simulations on a closed system (or a system that doesn’t exchange heat or matter with its surroundings) containing a “soup” of 25 chemicals. Although their setup is very simple, a similar type of soup may have pooled on the surface of a primordial and lifeless Earth. If, say, these chemicals are concentrated and heated by an external source – a hydrothermal vent, for example – the pool of chemicals would need to dissipate that heat in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Heat must dissipate and the entropy of the system will inevitably increase.

Under certain initial conditions, he found that these chemicals may optimize the energy applied to the system by self-organizing and undergoing intense reactions to self-replicate. The chemicals fine-tuned themselves naturally. These reactions generate heat that obeys the second law of thermodynamics; entropy will always increase in the system and the chemicals would self-organize and exhibit the life-like behavior of self-replication.

“Essentially, the system tries a bunch of things on a small scale, and once one of them starts experiencing positive feedback, it does not take that long for it to take over the character of organization in the system,” England told Live Science.

This is a very simple model of what goes on in biology: chemical energy is burned in cells that are – by their nature – out of equilibrium, driving the metabolic processes that maintain life. But, as England admits, there’s a big difference between finding life-like qualities in a virtual chemical soup and life itself.

Sara Imari Walker, a theoretical physicist and astrobiologist at Arizona State University who was not involved in the current research, agrees.

“There’s a two-way bridge that needs to be crossed to try to bridge biology and physics; one is to understand how you get life-like qualities from simple physical systems and the other is to understand how physics can give rise to life,” Imari Walker told Live Science. “You need to do both to really understand what properties are unique to life and what properties are characteristic of things that you consider to be almost alive […] like a prebiotic system.”

Emergence of life beyond Earth?

Before we can even begin to answer the big question of whether these simple physical systems may influence the emergence of life elsewhere in the universe, it would be better to understand where these systems exist on Earth first.

“If, when you say ‘life,’ you mean stuff that is as stunningly impressive as a bacterium or anything else with polymerases and DNA, my work doesn’t yet tell us anything about how easy or difficult it is to make something that complex, so I shouldn’t speculate about what we’d be likely to find elsewhere than Earth,”  England said. (Polymerases are proteins that assemble DNA and RNA.)

This research doesn’t specifically identify how biology emerges from nonbiological systems, only that in some complex chemical situations, surprising self-organization occurs. These simulations do not consider other life-like qualities – such as adaptation to environment or reaction to stimuli. Also, this thermodynamics test on a closed system does not consider the role of information reproduction in life’s origins, said Michael Lässig, a statistical physicist and quantitative biologist at the University of Cologne in Germany.

“[This] work is indeed a fascinating result on non-equilibrium chemical networks but it is still a long way from a physics explanation of the origins of life, which requires the reproduction of information,” Lässig, who was not involved in the research, told Live Science.

There’s a critical role for information in living systems, added Imari Walker. Just because there appears to be natural self-organization exhibited by a soup of chemicals, it doesn’t necessarily mean living organization.

“I think there’s a lot of intermediate stages that we have to get through to go from simple ordering to having a full-on information processing architecture like a living cell, which requires something like memory and hereditary,” said Imari Walker. “We can clearly get order in physics and non-equilibrium systems, but that doesn’t necessarily make it life.”

To say England’s work could be the “smoking gun” for the origin of life is premature, and there are many other hypotheses as to how life may have emerged from nothing, experts said. But it is a fascinating insight into how physical systems may self-organize in nature. Now that researchers have a general idea about how this thermodynamic system behaves, it would be a nice next step to identify sufficiently out-of-equilibrium physical systems that naturally occur on Earth, England said.