Audição: Novas Informações sôbre os Mecanismos da Recepção de Ondas de Som

A salvação da Humanidade, a melhoria das condições de vida para todos os seres humanos, a nossa libertação desta detestável ditadura da ignorancia, dependem fatalmente da aceleração do nosso estudo dessa Natureza, buscando entender como ela funciona, a maior quantidade de informações possiveis sôbre cada fenômeno, cada objeto, cada evento natural, pois é a aprendiagem sôbre mecanismos e processos naturais que nos capacita a imitá-los com novos materiais e novas circunstancias, a misturá-los com outros mecanismos, e assim produzir tecnologia, o nosso contrôle sôbre o nosso mundo material. Noticias como esta são aqui registradas para cuidadoso estudo, e para serem comparadas, meditadas, tendo como parâmetro comparativo a fórmula universal da Matrix/DNA.

Science Daily

Mechanism of Hearing Is Similar to Car Battery, Researcher Learns

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130107145707.htm

Located within the antenna of a fruit fly, the auditory organ (pictured) is shown being activated in response to the fruit fly love song. The sodium pump is stained in green, while blue highlights nuclei and red stains the cytoskeletal protein, actin. (Credit: Image provided by Madhuparna Roy)

Located within the antenna of a fruit fly, the auditory organ (pictured) is shown being activated in response to the fruit fly love song. The sodium pump is stained in green, while blue highlights nuclei and red stains the cytoskeletal protein, actin. (Credit: Image provided by Madhuparna Roy)

PAPER : PNAS

Cell-type–specific roles of Na+/K+ ATPase subunits inDrosophila auditory mechanosensation

http://www.pnas.org/content/110/1/181.abstract

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Abstract

Ion homeostasis is a fundamental cellular process particularly important in excitable cell activities such as hearing. It relies on the Na+/K+ ATPase (also referred to as the Na pump), which is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit required for its transport to the plasma membrane and for regulating its activity. We show that α and β subunits are expressed in Johnston’s organ (JO), the Drosophila auditory organ. We knocked down expression of α subunits (ATPα and α-like) and β subunits (nrv1, nrv2, and nrv3) individually in JO with UAS/Gal4-mediated RNAi. ATPα shows elevated expression in the ablumenal membrane of scolopale cells, which enwrap JO neuronal dendrites in endolymph-like compartments. Knocking down ATPα, but not α-like, in the entire JO or only in scolopale cells using specific drivers, resulted in complete deafness. Among β subunits, nrv2 is expressed in scolopale cells and nrv3 in JO neurons. Knocking down nrv2 in scolopale cells blocked Nrv2 expression, reduced ATPα expression in the scolopale cells, and caused almost complete deafness. Furthermore, knockdown of either nrv2 or ATPα specifically in scolopale cells causes abnormal, electron-dense material accumulation in the scolopale space. Similarly, nrv3 functions in JO but not in scolopale cells, suggesting neuron specificity that parallels nrv2 scolopale cell–specific support of the catalytic ATPα. Our studies provide an amenable model to investigate generation of endolymph-like extracellular compartments.

Auditory System of Fruit Flies -  Johnston’s organ

Auditory System of Fruit Flies - Johnston’s organ

Imagem URL:

http://neuro.bcm.edu/groveslab/?m=static&id=22

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